Saturday, September 14, 2019

In Search Of Ocean Heat - 7

Fig. 1 Pelagic Depths
I. Background

It is, compared to the ocean depths, quite easy to find the heat in the atmosphere, the heat on land, and heat at the surface of the ocean.

However, that is not the case within the largest realm on Earth, the Pelagic Zone  (Fig. 1).

In this Dredd Blog series it has been pointed out that ocean heat is difficult to follow as it radiates into the unexplored places of the oceans (In Search Of Ocean Heat23456).

Other planets have been scientifically studied more than most of these pelagic realms:
"Where do we start? I suggest by making the ocean visible. Although nothing lives there, Mars, the Moon and Venus are better mapped (at about 100m x 100m resolution) than the seafloor, which is home to many of the 90% of a possible two million species in the ocean yet to be described—and along with them valuable novel marine genetic resources. It is often said that you cannot manage what you cannot measure, but equally the case is that you do not measure what you do not value."
(Newsweek, emphasis added). This is misguided and the result of mismanagement, most likely instigated by corporate propaganda and greed (New Continent Found - Garbage Gyre II) which all too often control scientific research efforts (A Falsified Oil-Qaeda Hypothesis Spreads).

Fig. 2 Conservative Temperature (CT)
Fig. 3 Ocean Heat Content (hO)
II. The Arctic Example

It is easy to follow the impact of global warming in the Arctic.

As it turns out, it is warming more than some other regions:
"Chelsea Wegner was shocked when she landed in Anchorage, Alaska, in July, on her way to a research cruise in the Bering Sea. Smoke from wildfires across the state had darkened the skies, and Anchorage was in the midst of a heatwave that saw temperatures soar past 32 °C [soar past 90°F] for the first time in recorded history.

Wegner, a marine biologist at the University of Maryland in Solomons, also knew that the unusual warmth had melted away nearly all of the sea ice in the Bering Sea. 'It was a really surreal moment,' she says.

Later, while sailing aboard a Canadian icebreaker off the coast of Alaska, Wegner watched walruses swimming in open water — without the ice floes they normally use as a platform to rest, give birth and nurse their young during the Arctic summer."
(Arctic revolution). A lot of the sea animals are, like humans, dying of heat further south ... "not making it" (ABC, Reuters, CNN).

III. How The Ocean Heat Gets "Lost"

The two graphs above (Fig. 2, Fig. 3) detail the trail of Conservative Temperature (CT) and Potential Enthalpy (hO), otherwise known as Ocean Heat Content and/or Ocean Heat Flux.

Ocean Heat Content is not lost to Dredd Blog software because the best thermodynamic tools for oceanographic research are used (Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawater - 2010, TEOS-10, cf. What every oceanographer needs to know about TEOS-10).

One of the scientists who worked to bring the new standard forth and to replace the old IOS-80 standard has carefully pointed out the problem with current software models:
"The quest in this work is to derive a variable that is conservative, independent of adiabatic changes in pressure, and whose conservation equation is the oceanic version of the first law of thermodynamics. That is, we seek a variable whose advection and diffusion can be interpreted as the advection and diffusion of ‘heat.’ In other words, we seek to answer the question, ‘what is heat’ in the ocean?
...
The variable that is currently used for this purpose in ocean models is potential temperature referenced to the sea surface, θ, but it does not accurately represent the conservation of heat because of (i) the variation of specific heat with salinity and (ii) the dependence of the total differential of enthalpy on variations of salinity.
...
For example, an increase in pressure of 107 Pa (1000 dbar), without exchange of heat or salt, causes a change in enthalpy that is equivalent to about 2.5ЊC. We show in this paper that in contrast to enthalpy, potential enthalpy does have the desired properties to embody the meaning of the first law.
...
Present treatment of oceanic heat fluxes is clearly inconsistent. Ocean models treat potential temperature as a conservative variable and calculate the heat flux across oceanic sections using a constant value of heat capacity. By contrast, heat flux through sections of observed data is often calculated using a variable specific heat multiplying the flux of potential temperature per unit area (Bryan 1962; Macdonald et al. 1994; Saunders 1995; Bacon and Fofonoff 1996). Here it is shown that the theoretical justification of this second approach is flawed on three counts. While the errors involved are small, it is clearly less than satisfactory to have conflicting practices in the observational and modeling parts of physical oceanography, particularly as an accurate and convenient solution can be found.
...
it is perfectly valid to talk of potential enthalpy, h0as the 'heat content' ...”
(In Search Of Ocean Heat). As with "what is the best time to solve global warming" the time to use TEOS-10 is way overdue (The TIME Has Come Today).

IV. Today's Graphs

The two graphs in today's post (Fig. 2, Fig. 3) show that ocean heat is radiating all the way down to the deepest ocean depths.

The Hadopelagic is the deepest, but it is now on average globally, warmer than the Abyssopelagic layer above it (since circa 1952).

In the world of oceanography concerning the thermocline, it is said that "The temperature of the deep ocean drops gradually with depth (Wikipedia)," but in the world of thermodynamics this is not axiomatic, because hot flows to cold (The Ghost Photons, 2, 3).

Ocean heat is radiating to the cooler waters of the deeps, and has been warming them (contrary to pre-global warming textbooks).

V. Closing Comments

The ocean heat content is not lost to TEOS-10, it is hard at work melting the tidewater glaciers that are flowing from the great ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica.

They are melting below the water line at an accelerating rate of 6 to 8 fold (Science Daily, PNAS, cf. video below).

The next post in this series is here, the previous post in this series is here.



Friday, September 13, 2019

The TIME Has Come Today

TIME September 2019
TIME January 2, 1989
We are in the "show me" state (of mind):
"Three decades ago—at a moment when much of the world was only beginning to wake up to the damage humanity had been wreaking on its home—TIME convened a group of 33 scientists and political leaders from five continents in Boulder, Colo., to discuss the threat. The result was one of the best-known issues TIME has ever produced, sounding one of the louder alarms to date. In the Jan. 2, 1989, issue, the editors named “Endangered Earth” the most important story of the year, replacing the annual “Person of the Year” with a planet, our own. The cover, by the artist Christo, showed a 16-in. globe wrapped in plastic and rag rope.
...
Notably, what you will not find in this issue are climate-change skeptics. Core to our mission is bringing together diverse perspectives. Experts can and should debate the best route to mitigating the effects of climate change, but there is no serious doubt that those effects are real. We are witnessing them right in front of us. The science on global warming is settled. There isn’t another side, and there isn’t another moment."
(TIME, cf. this). Can we honestly say that we were not warned (Naomi Oreskes)?



Thursday, September 12, 2019

How To Identify The Despotic Minority - 13

Back in the USSR
I. Background

This Dredd Blog series has been pointing out the history of nationalism, militarism, and the tyranny of a despotic minority that has brought down over twenty civilizations down through time.

The information comes from Encyclopedia Britannica and historian Arnold Toynbee (How To Identify The Despotic Minority, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12).

One factor that has been focused on is "tyranny" which is another word for "cruelty."

As it turns out, perhaps one of the least expected sources of cruelty being revealed is a "religious" source not at all associated with terrorism (Atlantic, RawStory).

In today's post I want to point out that the American government as set up by the U.S. Constitution is not fail safe, because it has some serious undemocratic aspects to it that at this point in our nation's history is unlikely to be remedied.

II. A Predicament

According the the last census of 2010, the 22 "Red States" that are home to a lot of current right wing religion and politics, as shown by the table below, make up only 31.42% of the population of the 50 states.

Yet they are given two senators each, totaling 44% of the U.S. Senate:

Red StatesPopulation
Rank
Population
Census 2010
Population
Percent
Senate
Percent
Wyoming 50 0.563626 mil 0.17 2
Alaska 48 0.710231 mil 0.39 4
North Dakota 47 0.672591 mil 0.62 6
South Dakota 46 0.81418 mil 0.89 8
Montana 43 0.989415 mil 1.21% 10%
Idaho 39 1.56758 mil 1.74 12
West Virginia 38 1.85299 mil 2.29 14
Nebraska 37 1.82634 mil 2.87 16
Kansas 35 2.85312 mil 3.75 18
Mississippi 34 2.9673 mil 4.65% 20%
Arkansas 33 2.91592 mil 5.56 22
Utah 30 2.76389 mil 6.52 24
Oklahoma 28 3.75135 mil 7.71 26
Kentucky 26 4.33937 mil 9.06 28
Louisiana 25 4.53337 mil 10.47% 30%
Alabama 24 4.77974 mil 11.95 32
South Carolina 23 4.62536 mil 13.49 34
Missouri 18 5.98893 mil 15.34 36
Tennessee 16 6.3461 mil 17.39 38
Arizona 14 6.39202 mil 19.56% 40%
Georgia 8 9.68765 mil 22.74 42
Texas 2 25.1456 mil 31.42% 44%
Total  96.0866 mil

III. Another Predicament

Now, let's look at the whole population, all states, and the entire population so as to see that a remedy is not within our grasp at this time.

The table below (per 2010 Census) shows that 1.08% of the population elects 10% of the senate, 2.82% of the population elects 20% of the senate, 5.54% of the population elects 30% of the senate, 10.1% of the population elects 40% of the senate, 15.95% of the population elects 50% of the senate, 23.8% of the population elects 60% of the senate, and 33.31% of the population elects 70% of the senate (and so forth):

State
(R=Red State)
Population
Rank
Population
Census 2010
Population
Percent
Senate
Percent
Wyoming (R) 50 0.563626 mil 0.17 2
Vermont 49 0.625741 mil 0.36 4
Alaska (R) 48 0.710231 mil 0.58 6
North Dakota (R) 47 0.672591 mil 0.81 8
South Dakota (R) 46 0.81418 mil 1.08% 10%
Delaware 45 0.897934 mil 1.37 12
Rhode Island 44 1.05257 mil 1.69 14
Montana (R) 43 0.989415 mil 2.01 16
Maine 42 1.32836 mil 2.41 18
New Hampshire 41 1.31647 mil 2.82% 20%
Hawaii 40 1.3603 mil 3.25 22
Idaho (R) 39 1.56758 mil 3.78 24
West Virginia (R) 38 1.85299 mil 4.33 26
Nebraska (R) 37 1.82634 mil 4.91 28
New Mexico 36 2.05918 mil 5.54% 30%
Kansas (R) 35 2.85312 mil 6.42 32
Mississippi (R) 34 2.9673 mil 7.32 34
Arkansas (R) 33 2.91592 mil 8.23 36
Nevada 32 2.70055 mil 9.15 38
Iowa 31 3.04636 mil 10.1% 40%
Utah (R) 30 2.76389 mil 11.06 42
Connecticut 29 3.5741 mil 12.14 44
Oklahoma (R) 28 3.75135 mil 13.33 46
Oregon 27 3.83107 mil 14.6 48
Kentucky (R) 26 4.33937 mil 15.95% 50%
Louisiana (R) 25 4.53337 mil 17.36 52
Alabama (R) 24 4.77974 mil 18.84 54
South Carolina (R) 23 4.62536 mil 20.38 56
Minnesota 22 5.30392 mil 22.08 58
Colorado 21 5.0292 mil 23.8% 60%
Wisconsin 20 5.68699 mil 25.56 62
Maryland 19 5.77355 mil 27.39 64
Missouri (R) 18 5.98893 mil 29.24 66
Indiana 17 6.4838 mil 31.26 68
Tennessee (R) 16 6.3461 mil 33.31% 70%
Massachusetts 15 6.54763 mil 35.4 72
Arizona (R) 14 6.39202 mil 37.57 74
Washington 13 6.72454 mil 39.85 76
Virginia 12 8.00102 mil 42.43 78
New Jersey 11 8.79189 mil 45.12% 80%
Michigan 10 9.88364 mil 48.14 82
North Carolina 9 9.53548 mil 51.28 84
Georgia (R) 8 9.68765 mil 54.46 86
Ohio 7 11.5365 mil 57.99 88
Illinois 6 12.8306 mil 61.84% 90%
Pennsylvania 5 12.7024 mil 65.71 92
New York 4 19.3781 mil 71.62 94
Florida 3 18.8013 mil 78.06 96
Texas (R) 2 25.1456 mil 86.74 98
California 1 37.2545 mil 98.7% 100%
USA 308.144 mil

IV. Population Estimates For 2018

The table below (population estimates for 2018) shows that 1.09766% of the population elects 10% of the senate, 2.86874% of the population elects 20% of the senate, 5.62715% of the population elects 30% of the senate, 10.2532% of the population elects 40% of the senate, 16.176% of the population elects 50% of the senate, 24.1214% of the population elects 60% of the senate, and 33.7532% of the population elects 70% of the senate (and so forth):

StatePopulation
Rank
Population
2018 Est.
Percent of
Population
Percent of
Senate
Wyoming 50 0.577737 mil 0.176968% 2%
Vermont 49 0.626299 mil 0.368811% 4%
Alaska 48 0.737438 mil 0.594697% 6%
North Dakota 47 0.760077 mil 0.827517% 8%
South Dakota 46 0.882235 mil 1.09776% 10%
Delaware 45 0.967171 mil 1.39401% 12%
Rhode Island 44 1.05732 mil 1.71788% 14%
Montana 43 1.06231 mil 2.04328% 16%
Maine 42 1.3384 mil 2.45324% 18%
New Hampshire 41 1.35646 mil 2.86874% 20%
Hawaii 40 1.42049 mil 3.30386% 22%
Idaho 39 1.75421 mil 3.84119% 24%
West Virginia 38 1.80583 mil 4.39434% 26%
Nebraska 37 1.92927 mil 4.98529% 28%
New Mexico 36 2.09543 mil 5.62715% 30%
Kansas 35 2.91151 mil 6.51898% 32%
Mississippi 34 2.98653 mil 7.43379% 34%
Arkansas 33 3.01383 mil 8.35695% 36%
Nevada 32 3.03439 mil 9.28642% 38%
Iowa 31 3.15614 mil 10.2532% 40%
Utah 30 3.16111 mil 11.2215% 42%
Connecticut 29 3.57267 mil 12.3158% 44%
Oklahoma 28 3.94308 mil 13.5236% 46%
Oregon 27 4.19071 mil 14.8073% 48%
Kentucky 26 4.4684 mil 16.176% 50%
Louisiana 25 4.65998 mil 17.6034% 52%
Alabama 24 4.88787 mil 19.1006% 54%
South Carolina 23 5.08413 mil 20.658% 56%
Minnesota 22 5.61118 mil 22.3767% 58%
Colorado 21 5.69556 mil 24.1214% 60%
Wisconsin 20 5.81357 mil 25.9021% 62%
Maryland 19 6.04272 mil 27.7531% 64%
Missouri 18 6.12645 mil 29.6297% 66%
Indiana 17 6.69188 mil 31.6795% 68%
Tennessee 16 6.77001 mil 33.7532% 70%
Massachusetts 15 6.90215 mil 35.8674% 72%
Arizona 14 7.17165 mil 38.0642% 74%
Washington 13 7.53559 mil 40.3724% 76%
Virginia 12 8.51769 mil 42.9815% 78%
New Jersey 11 8.90852 mil 45.7103% 80%
Michigan 10 9.99592 mil 48.7721% 82%
North Carolina 9 10.3836 mil 51.9527% 84%
Georgia 8 10.5195 mil 55.175% 86%
Ohio 7 11.6894 mil 58.7556% 88%
Illinois 6 12.7411 mil 62.6583% 90%
Pennsylvania 5 12.8071 mil 66.5813% 92%
New York 4 19.5422 mil 72.5673% 94%
Florida 3 21.2993 mil 79.0915% 96%
Texas 2 28.7018 mil 87.8832% 98%
California 1 39.557 mil 100% 100%
USA 326,465,000

Of course that assumes that every one of those members of the population votes (see how optimistic I am sometimes).

The point I am making is that this is not the definition of a democracy in the pure, functional sense: "government by the people; especially : rule of the majority" (Dictionary).

The population in a state with 500,000 people gets the same number of senators as a state with ~40,000,000 people.

This means that the low population states can more easily control the senate, and thus the cabinets and the courts (Here Come De Conservative Judges234567).

And as goes the Supremes, so goes the nation ("the constitution says what the Supreme Court says it says" - paraphrase, see Harvard Law Review).

The Senate decides who can go on the Supreme Court, and who cannot.

See the problem?!

V. Closing Comments

The tyranny of the despotic minority is here, and the odds are that it is here to stay?

The previous post in this series is here.

Ode to The Rus People:



Monday, September 9, 2019

A Falsified Oil-Qaeda Hypothesis Spreads

Fig. 1 When Oil-Qaeda was Humble
I. Background

This begins a new Dredd Blog series.

The picture to the left is a copy of the center-piece of a Life Magazine issue from 1962 in which Oil-Qaeda bragged about their product melting millions of tons of glaciers daily.

The subject matter of this series is about Oil-Qaeda's instigation and support of research concerning the myth that thermal expansion is "the" or "a" major source of global sea level change (SLC) or sea level rise (SLR).

In this sense "the" means the number one source while "a" means the second place source.

The researchers involved with distorting the thermal expansion myth do not use "SLC" to describe the subject matter of their work in their papers, instead they prefer to use "SLR."

Their papers that are promoting the falsified hypothesis, as far as I can tell at this point, are showing up more in The Cryosphere ("established in 2007 and is published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union" - Wikipedia).

That may be because the Oil-Qaeda inspired research empire is now primarily European.

II. The Ignored Size of the Oilosphere

A long time ago I pointed out that products made from oil are part and parcel of Oil-Qaeda, including the scientific research required to convert all or part of oil even into food products.

Here is a partial list of a few products made from oil:
Solvents, Diesel fuel, Motor Oil, Bearing Grease, Ink, Floor Wax, Ballpoint Pens, Football Cleats, Upholstery, Sweaters, Boats, Insecticides, Bicycle Tires, Sports Car Bodies, Nail Polish, Fishing lures, Dresses, Tires, Golf Bags, Perfumes, Cassettes, Dishwasher parts, Tool Boxes, Shoe Polish, Motorcycle Helmet, Caulking, Petroleum Jelly, Transparent Tape, CD Player, Faucet Washers, Antiseptics, Clothesline, Curtains, Food Preservatives, Basketballs, Soap, Vitamin Capsules, Antihistamines, Purses, Shoes, Dashboards, Cortisone, Deodorant, Footballs, Putty, Dyes, Panty Hose, Refrigerant, Percolators, Life Jackets, Rubbing Alcohol, Linings, Skis, TV Cabinets, Shag Rugs, Electrician's Tape, Tool Racks, Car Battery Cases, Epoxy, Paint, Mops, Slacks, Insect Repellent, Oil Filters, Umbrellas, Yarn, Fertilizers, Hair Coloring, Roofing, Toilet Seats, Fishing Rods, Lipstick, Denture Adhesive, Linoleum, Ice Cube Trays, Synthetic Rubber, Speakers, Plastic Wood, Electric Blankets, Glycerin, Tennis Rackets, Rubber Cement, Fishing Boots, Dice, Nylon Rope, Candles, Trash Bags, House Paint, Water Pipes, Hand Lotion, Roller Skates, Surf Boards, Shampoo, Wheels, Paint Rollers, Shower Curtains, Guitar Strings, Luggage, Aspirin, Safety Glasses, Antifreeze, Football Helmets, Awnings, Eyeglasses, Clothes, Toothbrushes, Ice Chests, Footballs, Combs, CD's & DVD's, Paint Brushes, Detergents, Vaporizers, Balloons, Sun Glasses, Tents, Heart Valves, Crayons, Parachutes, Telephones, Enamel, Pillows, Dishes, Cameras, Anesthetics, Artificial Turf, Artificial limbs, Bandages, Dentures, Model Cars, Folding Doors, Hair Curlers, Cold cream, Movie film, Soft Contact lenses, Drinking Cups, Fan Belts, Car Enamel, Shaving Cream, Ammonia, Refrigerators, Golf Balls, Toothpaste, Gasoline...
(A Closer Look At MOMCOM's DNA - 2, quoting oil industry sources). The companies that make these products are customers of Oil-Qaeda, and depend on Oil-Qaeda for their business existence.

What does that have to do with research?

III. The Source of the Research Problem

The source of the problem is the marriage of money to scientific research in a magnitude that seems to be breaking records for conflict of interest.

I ended up with that conclusion after reading a paper that contained the statement:
"... the main contributors to rising global mean sea level are the thermal expansion of the world's ocean, the mass losses emanating from the Greenland Ice Sheet, and the worldwide recession of mountain glaciers and ice caps ..."
(Brief communication: A submarine wall, emphasis added). To support their hypothesis they cite to another paper from the same research empire which declares:
"From a novel combination of Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment and radar altimetry data we find over the last 12 y ... a larger global steric sea-level rise [thermal expansion] as previously reported ... is significantly larger than steric trends derived from in situ temperature/salinity profiles ..."
(Revisiting the contemporary sea-level budget, emphasis added). This "novel combination" evidently "don't need no stinkin' in situ measurements" taken by oceanographers from the surface of the ocean on research vessels, or from ARGO floats, or anywhere else in the ocean depths where they have been acquired by scientists for two hundred years or so.

The authors go on to write "Understanding sea-level rise requires a well-established monitoring network, preferably covering long timespans" ... then they ignore hundreds of years of data taken on site, at depth, then recorded in the World Ocean Database (WOD).

They offer, in substitution of that vast body of measurements, only a tiny 12 years of space data ("Over the years 2002–2014") in order to make never before made pronouncements without any in situ data, using instead a "novel combination" of the view taken from 100 miles or so out in space (this is beyond Resplandy et al.).

The WOD datasets of in situ data are quite easy to download, but it takes real work to move them into SQL servers (WOD Update).

The authors say they are not inclined to bother with that part of it, preferring instead to space out, even though they acknowledge "Obviously, no steric changes [thermal expansion] can be observed by GRACE [FROM OUTER SPACE]" (in other words "they (the we)" are saying "we do not need to observe in situ events because we are making 'novel' assertions").

IV. Money Controlling Research = Corruption of Science

The Cryosphere journal and the authors come from a new empire, the Buckosphere, where money talks and the world according to measurements walks:
"Companies play an important role in German research. Industrial research is the most important pillar of German research outside the public sector. More than two-thirds of the annual funds invested in research come from industry ... Industry-based and -financed investments account for more than two thirds of all R&D funding in Germany. Companies are especially involved in applied research and work closely with universities, universities of applied sciences and non-university research institutes. Examples of successful technology transfer can be found in the areas of environmental research ..."
(Federal Ministry of Education and Research, emphasis added). Ok, so "is it just any corporation that can run the show, or is there any environmental bias involved?" you might wonder.

You decide if this research industry has any links to the oil and gasoline industry:
"The largest investments are made by the automotive sector: carmakers
Fig. 2 Big spenders on research
and their suppliers spend almost 22 billion euros on research and development. That is over one third of the total R&D investment by German industry. Accordingly, this is also where the largest number of people are employed: almost 114,000 employees work in R&D for the automotive engineering sector."
(Research in Germany, emphasis added). Do they argue that "Of course there is no conflict of interest with the oil industry (Oil-Qaeda), 'cause who needs oil and gas when you have a car dood?"

V.  Who Decides The Research Results?

Let's take a look at the stockholders of Volkswagen, Daimler, Robert Bosch, BMW, Siemens, Bayer, Boehringer Sohn, SAP, Continental, Merck (see Fig. 2).

A. Volkswagen

Volkswagen is an automobile industry company whose third largest voting shareholder is Qatar:

"The distribution of voting rights for the 295,089,818 ordinary shares was as follows at the reporting date: Porsche Automobil Holding SE, Stuttgart, held 52.2% of the voting rights. The second-largest shareholder was the State of Lower Saxony, which held 20.0% of the voting rights. Qatar Holding LLC was the third-largest shareholder, with 17.0%. The remaining 10.8% of ordinary shares were attributable to other shareholders" (VW Annual Report, emphasis added).

Qatar Holding LLC is state owned ("Qatar's economy is one of the richest economies in the world based on GDP per capita, ranking between fifth and seventh on world rankings for 2015 and 2016 data compiled by the World Bank, United Nations, and IMF").

Petroleum and natural gas are the cornerstones of Qatar's economy and account for more than 70% of total government revenue, more than 60% of gross domestic product, and roughly 85% of export earnings. Qatar has the world's third largest proven natural gas reserve and is the second-largest exporter of natural gas." - (Economy of Qatar)

B. Daimler

Daimler Shareholders: "More than one billion outstanding Daimler shares are held around the globe. Our biggest shareholders are Kuwait's Sovereign Savings Fund (since 1974), Renault-Nissan (cross-holdings since 2010) and Chinese investor Li Shufu. Li Shufu holds the largest equity stake in Daimler through Tenaciou Prospect Investment Limited (since 2018). In July 2019, the Chinese BAIC Group acquired 5 % of the voting rights in Daimler." (Daimler Stockholders)

Kuwait: "Kuwait controls approximately 6 percent of the world’s oil reserves. Oil and gas account for nearly 60 percent of GDP and about 92 percent of export revenues." (Kuwait Economy)

C. Robert Bosch

Robert Bosch developed devious software for Volkswagen that concerned covering up and/or hiding vehicle emissions so as to deceive the U.S. EPA, which was promoting pollution (Robert Bosch).

D. BMW

BMW is in the Automotive Industry.

E. Siemens

Siemens is "the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe" and "Siemens acquired U.S. oilfield equipment maker Dresser-Rand Group Inc."

Siemens makes "compressors for oil and gas pipelines" ... "Siemens businesses ... Power and Gas ... Power Generation Services ... Energy Management" ... "In 2011, Siemens invested a total of €3.925 billion in research and development ... As of 30 September 2011, Siemens had approximately 11,800 Germany-based employees engaged in research and development and approximately 16,000 in the rest of the world" (Siemens).

"Siemens has formed a strategic alliance with Technische Universität Darmstadt research university" (Technische Research University).

Check out Research Universities.

F. Bayer

This company makes things from oil derivatives (e.g. aspirin) ... (e.g. toluene is used to make polyurethanes: "Toluene occurs naturally at low levels in crude oil and is a byproduct in the production of gasoline by a catalytic reformer or ethylene cracker; It is also a byproduct of the production of coke from coal." - Toluene); "Otto Bayer and his coworkers at IG Farben in Leverkusen, Germany, first made polyurethanes in 1937" (Polyurethane); "Bayer ... one of the world's largest chemical and pharmaceutical corporations.

In 2006 the company acquired Schering, in 2014 it acquired Merck & Co.'s consumer business, with brands such as Claritin, Coppertone and Dr. Scholl's, and in 2018 it acquired Monsanto, a leading producer of genetically engineered crops, for $63 billion.

Bayer CropScience develops genetically modified crops and pesticides" (Bayer).

"The company’s trademark, the Bayer cross, is internationally recognized. Scores of pharmaceuticals, dyes, acetates, synthetic rubbers, plastics, fibres, insecticides, and other chemicals were first developed by Bayer."

"In addition to being the originator and first marketer of aspirin (1899), Bayer was the first company to mass-produce heroin for use in pain and cough medications (1898)."

"It introduced the first sulfa drug, Prontosil (1935), and developed polyurethane (1937), a base material for synthetic foams, paints, adhesives, fibres, and other goods" (Encyclopedia Britannica).

G. Boehringer Sohn

"C.H. Boehringer Sohn AG & Ko. KG is the parent company of the Boehringer Ingelheim group ... Boehringer Ingelheim is one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies ... Boehringer Ingelheim is involved in publicly funded collaborative research projects with other industrial and academic partners" (Boehringer Ingelheim).

H. SAP

"As of 2016, SAP is the world's third largest software and programming company." (SAP SE). They should be able to make an SQL database from in situ WOD data doncha think?

I. Continental

"Continental AG, commonly known as Continental, is a German automotive manufacturing company specializing in brake systems, interior electronics, automotive safety, powertrain and chassis components, tachographs, tires and other parts for the automotive and transportation industries."

"Continental is based in Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany. Continental is the world's fourth-largest tire manufacturer ... Continental was founded ... as a rubber manufacturer" (Continental AG).

"A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer ... These are mainly polymers synthesized from petroleum byproducts" (synthetic rubber).

J. Merck

"Merck was founded in 1668 and is the world's oldest operating chemical and pharmaceutical company, as well as one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world ... It has major research and development centres in Darmstadt, Boston, Tokyo and Beijing."

"Merck pioneered the commercial manufacture of morphine in the 19th century and for a time held a virtual monopoly on cocaine ... Merck has formed a strategic alliance with the Technische Universität Darmstadt, which is located in the same town as Merck" (Merck Group).

VI. Closing Comments

Well, hopefully that is enough for this first post.

I hope you readers to get an idea about where this series is heading:
"In total, the US transportation sector—which includes cars, trucks, planes, trains, ships, and freight—produces nearly thirty percent of all US global warming emissions, more than almost any other sector."
(Car Emissions & Global Warming, emphasis added). So, it looks like the fox is watching the research hen-house (cf. Vehicles, Air Pollution, and Human Health).

We must identify in great detail the sources who influence scientific papers that do not offer a way to falsify their hypothesis (but we make do with reality, and falsify it for them).

We have furnished an abundant critique of the falsified "thermal expansion is the major or a major cause of sea level rise" (On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37,38, 39, 40, 41, 42;  The World According To Measurements, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,17, 18, 19, 20, 21; note especially: Patterns: Conservative Temperature & Potential Enthalpy - 5).

Take care.

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Patterns: Conservative Temperature & Potential Enthalpy - 5

World Ocean Database (quads & layers)
I. Double Checking For Accuracy

One of the ways to estimate the accuracy of thermal expansion calculations is to see how much of a match the pattern (on a line graph) has with the patterns of Conservative Temperature (CT) and Potential Enthalpy (hO) on a line graph.

All Quadrants, 20m depth
All Quadrants, 600m depth
All Quadrants, 3000m depth
All Quadrants, SLC
Those two variables are related to Ocean Heat Content (OHC), and more than that, they are in thermodynamic proportion ("A new temperature variable called 'conservative temperature' is advanced that is simply proportional to potential enthalpy." - Trevor J. McDougall).

Which is good because thermal expansion or contraction calculations are an attempt to determine what effect heat changes in a mass of seawater will have on that mass of seawater's volume.

Thus, the CT and hO patterns should be considered to be the appropriate pattern for the thermal expansion or contraction pattern to match.

If the patterns do not match reasonably, then something is amiss in the thermal expansion and contraction calculations or data.
NE Quadrant, 20m depth
NE Quadrant, 600m depth
NE Quadrant, 3000m depth
NE Quadrant, SLC

NW Quadrant, 20m depth
NW Quadrant, 600m depth
NW Quadrant, 3000m depth
NW Quadrant, SLC
II. What 'Matching' Means

The graphs being observed for a match will not be to scale, just like today's graphs.

The thermal expansion and contraction digits are and will be small, compared to the CT and hO digits.

For example, on the "All Quadrants, 20m depth" graph (first graph at the top of the page) notice that where the thermal expansion and contraction digits are "0.06", they compare to digits "60" and "16" for the hO and CT variables.

Graphing software can also cause stretching and shrinking when thermal expansion or contraction, CT, and hO are graphed closely together as today's graphs are.

The 'match' to remember, then, is that thermal expansion should take place when CT and hO are increasing, but should become thermal contraction when CT and hO are decreasing.
SE Quadrant, 20m depth
SE Quadrant, 600m depth
SE Quadrant, 3000m depth
SE Quadrant, SLC

The pattern matching effort is not exercised in order to calculate the amount of sea level change (SLC), rather it is exercised in order to double check the computational sequences and methods.

Other graphs can check the magnitude, such as the five SLC graphs (one for each quadrant, and one for the combined quadrants) included in today's graphs.
SW Quadrant, 20m depth
SW Quadrant, 600m depth
SW Quadrant, 3000m depth
SW Quadrant, SLC

Incidentally, they show that thermal expansion is not 'the' or even 'a' major cause of SLC.

III. Limitations of Matching Patterns

I have not completely explored the entire range and scope of situations where the pattern matching test will hold.

For example, will it hold and still work for single WOD Zones?

Today's graphs can't tell us that, because they cover an entire quadrant, one fourth of the Earth's surface (many zones).

Will the pattern hold in much smaller areas, i.e., the area of a single zone?

Maybe I will pause, and do some tests and write about it in this post.

Be right back...

Just got back after confirming that using single zones is fine so long as the zone does not have multiple seacoast codes or too much land interference (all-water zones are best).

For example, notice Zone 1601, which has a portion of the North Atlantic on its west side, and a portion of the Baltic Sea on its east side, with land between them.

That causes some pattern aberration, but not completely so.

These two (N.Atlantic, Baltic) types of waters have different "just about everything," so, one must process them in two graphs (N. Atlantic seacoast code, and Baltic seacoast code) in order to try to generate matching patterns.

At any rate, you can calibrate your source code by using zones with only one body of water (zones with plenty of in situ measurements in just plain seawater - no islands, etc.).

The thermosteric computations are more sensitive than the CT and hO are, and therefore are useful as a fine tuning exercise.

IV. Acquiring SLC Totals

Another interesting phenomenon that came to mind is that the combined thermal expansion and contraction of the 33 depth levels results in a required total, not just a "convenient" mean average, such as with Global Mean Average sea level.

That is because to determine the actual total SLC caused by thermosteric volume changes at the 33 WOD depths, one must add all of the mass unit slices (that is the 33 individual depth level masses and their individual quantity of changes) to acquire the sum of the SLC.

It isn't a mean average, it is the combined total thermosteric volume change of that zone.

The graphs today on this page and in the appendix show the thermal expansion and contraction at various depth levels.

They slice a zone into 33 sections of mass.

The thermal expansion or contraction of each section of mass must be added together to derive the total SLC for any particular quadrant (or zone).

This is fully explained here, showing the TEOS-10 methods and quoting from Jorda and Gomis (2013).

Thus, thermal expansion and contraction caused SLC can't be determined in the same manner as tide gauge recorded SLC is.

V. The Appendices of Zone Graphs

I have provided two appendices for the single-zone thermodynamic proportion graphs (Appendix One, Appendix Two).

I used 10m, 300m, and 1400m as the depths unlike I did in the quadrant graphs.

Anyway, it turns out that single zones also show the thermodynamic proportion, synchronization, and equilibrium of the parameters CT, hO and thermal expansion / contraction when the software is prepared in accordance with TEOS-10 methods.

One thing this means is that the calibration of software will be easier, and that we can use CT to tell us a lot more than in situ measurements do.

When you look at the pattern of ups and downs of CT you are looking at the ups and downs of OHC and OHF.

Using CT makes "zeroing in" much easier and less of a fishing expedition than it otherwise can be.

VI. History of the Thermal Expansion Hypothesis

The history of the scientific hypothesis that solar activity is the root cause of climate change ends with a falsified hypothesis.

However, that has not deterred Oil-Qaeda from continuing, over the past hundred years or so, to promote the idea that variation on the Sun causes not only climate change, but also causes SLC by warming or cooling the oceans.

That version of SLC has been touted as "the" major cause of SLC and more recently as "a" major cause of SLC.

Thermal expansion is neither "the" major cause or even "a" major cause, it is only a minor cause, contrary to the false claim ("Currently, the main contributors to rising global mean sea level are the thermal expansion of the world's ocean...") here suggests without any evidence.

The saga of Oil-Qaeda's deceit of the public has been chronicled in Merchants of Doubt.

Several Dredd Blog series have considered the ways and means that Oil-Qaeda uses (see list under heading "Oil-Qaeda" here).

The history of this hideous Oil-Qaeda endeavor is long-winded, but clear:
"Despite widespread skepticism, the study of [solar] cycles was popular in the 1920s and 1930s. By now there were a lot of weather data to play with, and inevitably people found correlations between sunspot cycles and selected weather patterns. Respected scientists and over-enthusiastic amateurs announced correlations that they insisted were reliable enough to make predictions.

Sooner or later, every [Sun change=climate change] prediction failed. An example was a highly credible forecast that there would be a dry spell in Africa during the sunspot minimum of the early 1930s. When that came out wrong, a meteorologist later recalled, 'the subject of sunspots and weather relationships fell into disrepute, especially among British meteorologists who witnessed the discomfiture of some of their most respected superiors.' Even in the 1960s, he said, 'For a young [climate] researcher to entertain any statement of sun-weather relationships was to brand oneself a crank.' Specialists in solar physics felt much the same. As one of them recalled, 'purported connections with... weather and climate were uniformly wacky and to be distrusted... there is a hypnotism about cycles that... draws all kinds of creatures out of the woodwork.' (This was a robust tradition: into the 21st century, enthusiasts with weird or incomprehensible theories of solar influences, backed up by selected weather data and intricate graphs, continued to show up at scientific meetings of meteorological societies.) By the 1940s, most meteorologists and astronomers had abandoned the quest for solar cycles in the weather. Yet some respected experts continued to suspect that a connection did exist, lurking somewhere in the data."
(Changing Sun, Changing Climate?, emphasis added;  cf. Sun & climate: moving in opposite directions). The continuum of denial is funded and fueled by Oil-Qaeda (Smoke & Fumes).

VII. Closing Comments

The thermodynamic proportionality of TEOS-10 components and variables is a key for continuing the hunt for OHC and OHF.

Let's keep the cranks out of the conversation and rely on the most purified and tested scientific accomplishments of Josiah Gibbs.

Einstein did:
Listening to Gibbs, who is perhaps the most influential historical voice in ocean thermodynamics (encapsulated in TEOS-10) would also help:
"Albert Einstein called him 'the greatest mind in American history.' Gibbs’s studies of thermodynamics and discoveries in statistical mechanics paved the way for many of Einstein’s later discoveries."
(American Physical Society). Especially since "encapsulated" means:
"TEOS-10 is based on a Gibbs function formulation from which all thermodynamic properties of seawater (density, enthalpy, entropy sound speed, etc.) can be derived in a thermodynamically consistent manner."
(Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawater - 2010, emphasis added). Or they can continue to flop around like the scientists who forgot about gravity in the ocean realm, as pointed out by Woodward 1888; scientists who therefore could not figure out some major variations in sea level change (NASA Busts The Ghost).
(In Search Of Ocean Heat - 5). We should too.

The previous post in this series is here.