Saturday, February 8, 2020

Quantum Oceanography

Fig. 1 WOD Layer Concept
I. A Thing Or Two

One thing is certain.

When the explorers of the deeps get way down to the Midnight Zone, they will find quanta (Midnight Zone).

They will find photons, the quanta of electromagnetic radiation.
Fig. 2 Standard TEOS-10

Some of the photons in seawater are 'light' (the visible spectrum), some are ultra-invisible (ultraviolet above the visible spectrum), and some are infra-invisible (infrared below the visible spectrum).

The invisible spectrum photons have things in common, one of which is that they are not sufficiently studied by oceanographers.

On the other hand all photons have something in common, which is e=hv (the amount of energy in them is calculated the same way).
Fig. 3 Standard Quantum Proportion

But most of them in the ocean are essentially ghosts, i.e. they are not visible to researchers (The Ghost Photons, 2, 3).

They are not visible because they are not in the visible spectrum ('light'), no, they are in the infrared spectrum which the human eye can't see ("out of sight out of mind"?).

So many of the papers I read seem to have forgotten that visible light in the ocean is not the only game in town.

The focus in so many papers is mostly about what ocean plants and animals do with visible photons, not what the seawater itself does with invisible photons (e.g. here, here, here, here).

Are we forgetting that "the equivalent of between three and six atomic bombs per second " goes into the oceans (As Our World Burns)?

Forgetting that most 'ocean heat' is composed of invisible photons in the infrared range of electromagnetic energy is actually forgetting most of the photons in the oceans.

But, thanks to Planck, Einstein, and Gibbs (boosting Dredd Blog 🙏) there is a thing or two we can do to watch the invisible photons travel thru the world's ocean depths (using World Ocean Database (WOD) in situ data).
Fig. 4 Layer 0
Fig. 5 Layer 1
Fig. 6 Layer 2
Fig. 7 Layer 3
Fig. 8 Layer 4
Fig. 9 Layer 5
Fig. 10 Layer 6
Fig. 11 Layer 7

Fig. 12 Layer 8
II. A Thing Called 'Que P'

Today I am introducing a 'thing' called 'Qp', which is a symbol for 'quantum proportion'.

Regular readers will remember that I have demonstrated that the Gibbs formulas in the TEOS-10 toolbox can be used to isolate thermodynamic proportion patterns in the ocean depths (e.g. Patterns: Conservative Temperature & Potential Enthalpy - 3, In Search Of Ocean Heat - 8).

The entity 'Qp' is a simple way to track, watch, discover, etc. Conservative Temperature, Potential Enthalpy, and infrared photons in the ocean depths (all at the same time in the same graph lines).

Today's graphs feature WOD "layers" (a Dredd Blog concept, see Fig. 1), Pelagic Depths, quantum proportion mapping in each layer, and finally in all layers combined.

III. What Quantum Proportion Is

Quantum Proportion 'Qp' is the relationship patterns of Conservative Temperature (CT), Potential Enthalpy (hO), and photon quantity (mol/kg) in seawater.

A way of looking at it is that they all have the same DNA, i.e. the same pattern and trend in terms of TEOS-10 calculations.

Remember also the standard TEOS-10 functions for Absolute Salinity (SA) and CT are also related.

To calculate SA one needs in situ salinity (SP), latitude, longitude, pressure (P) (calculated from height (Z); 'height' is a negative value when the in situ measurement location is below the ocean surface):

p = gsw_p_from_z(z,lat)
SA = gsw_SA_from_SP(SP,p,long,lat)

CT is then calculated using the SA value and the in situ seawater temperature (T):

CT = gsw_CT_from_t(SA,t,p)

The potential enthalpy ("Ocean Heat") can then be calculated:

enthalpy = gsw_enthalpy(SA,CT,p)
d = gsw_dynamic_enthalpy(SA,CT,p)

hO = enthalpy - d

The number of infrared photons is determined by dividing hO by the energy per photon  (e=hv).

IV. Calculating Quantum Proportion

Fig. 13 Layer 9
Fig. 14 Layer 10
Fig. 15 Layer 11
Fig. 16 Layer 12
Fig. 17 Layer 13
Fig. 18 Layer 14
Fig. 19 Layer 15
Fig. 20 Layer16
Fig. 21 All Layers
Since "over 75% of the ocean is at a depth between 3000 and 6000 m" (Sources of light in the deep ocean) the greatest amount of infrared photons are there [It reminds me of the time a detective was questioning an infamous bank robber: "Why do you rob banks?" the detective asked of the bank robber.

The bank robber quickly replied "Because that is where the money is!"
The Ghost Plumes - 9].

Fig. 3 shows that we can get an indication of how many quanta there are using the 'Qp' formula:

Qp = (CT+hO+photon mols)÷3

I use Qp instead of CT alone, even though CT produces the same proportion pattern.

When simply fishing for a trend or the general pattern CT does the trick, but Qp adds a feel for the magnitude of the ocean heat trend.

The graphs at Fig. 4 thru Fig. 20 will give you a feel for that.

They show the quantum proportion in a kg of seawater at Pelagic Depths (epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic, abyssopelagic, and hadopelagic).

In other words, from the surface to the bottom of the ocean areas graphed.

If one is looking for an area where tidewater glaciers might be melting at a particular depth, this allows for a quick scan of the ocean heat content available, making it easier to do that.

V. Quantum Exploration

The value of that kind of exploration can be seen in the example of recent Thwaites Glacier research where "A team of scientists has observed, for the first time, the presence of warm water at a vital point underneath a glacier in Antarctica--an alarming discovery that points to the cause behind the gradual melting of this ice shelf while also raising concerns about sea-level rise around the globe.

Warm waters in this part of the world, as remote as they may seem, should serve as a warning to all of us about the potential dire changes to the planet brought about by climate change," explains David Holland, director of New York University's Environmental Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and NYU Abu Dhabi's Center for Global Sea Level Change, which conducted the research. "If these waters are causing glacier melt in Antarctica, resulting changes in sea level would be felt in more inhabited parts of the world.

The recorded warm waters--more than two degrees above freezing--flow beneath the Thwaites Glacier, which is part of the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet. The discovery was made at the glacier's grounding zone--the place at which the ice transitions between resting fully on bedrock and floating on the ocean as an ice shelf and which is key to the overall rate of retreat of a glacier" (Antarctica Thwaites, emphasis added).

The conditions they found were expected, in the sense that TEOS-10 had previously been used here on Dredd Blog to indicate what they actually found (Antarctica 2.0 - 9).

Especially in the sense that some of the researchers emphasized that there was turbulence in addition to seawater conditions that would melt the glacier.

This comports with the plumes (turbulence) that are expected in the calculations of infrared photon induced plumes (The Ghost Plumes, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).

You might notice that the graph at  Fig. 21 indicates that the deepest ocean depth (Hadopelagic) is warming to the point of becoming warmer than the Abyssopelagic ("hot flows to cold" - laws of thermodynamics).

VI. Photon

I want to make it clear that the photon calculations and QP (Section II) are not part of the TEOS-10 toolbox software.

The "Photon" class is a C++ class I wrote, and is used on Dredd Blog to do photon calculations after I use the TEOS-10 software to calculate enthalpy (see Section III above).

Here is the header file (photon.h) of the C++ class [comments removed]:

#ifndef PHOTON_H
#define PHOTON_H

using namespace std;

const double planckConst = 6.62607004e-34; /** (h) m2 kg / s */
const double lightSpeed_m = 2.99792457999998645e8; /** (c) meters / sec */
const double lightSpeedSq_m = 8.987551787e16; /** (c2) meters / sec sec */
const double avogadroNum = 6.02214154e23; /** Avogadro’s number */
const double nm_to_m_Coeff = 1e-9;

const double wIR = 1.30e-6; /** λm (an infrared wavelength) */
const double vIR = 2.30609583076922e14; /** ν (frequency of wIR) */
const double eIR = 1.52804e-19; /** joules */
const double jMole = 92020.7; /** joules per mole */

struct PHOTON_DATA
{
    double nm;
    double wavelength;
    double frequency;
    double e;
    double e_mole;
    double photonsPerMole;
    double moles;

    void init()
    {
        photonsPerMole = wavelength = nm = 0.0;
        moles = frequency = e = e_mole = 0.0;
    };
};

class Photon
{
public:
    Photon();
    virtual ~Photon();

    PHOTON_DATA &getPhotonData_nm(double nm);
    PHOTON_DATA &getPhotonData_wl(double waveLen);
    PHOTON_DATA &getPhotonData_f(double frequency);
    PHOTON_DATA &getPhotonData_wIR(double joules_kg);

private:
    PHOTON_DATA photon_data;
};

#endif


VII. Closing Comments

We have a lot of exploring to do but not enough money to do it with.

Researchers doing in situ research first [using WOD in situ measurements], using these techniques, will move us further along in the quest for understanding "the land down under".

We can do TEOS-10 pre-scans that are reliable for developing suspicions about potential glacial melt.

Tons of money can be saved, research advanced, and our knowledge exponentially increased by using quantum science techniques [then focusing on targets indicated to likely be the highest melt areas as indicated by quantum proportion exploration via software logic].

The old pre-quantum-physics based science is just not up to the job.

The next post in this series is here.

Some knew in 1958 and in 1962 ...





Wednesday, February 5, 2020

How To Identify The Despotic Minority - 14

A.J. Toynbee
I. Everybody Knows

We all know, more or less, about why people come and go, psychologists come and go, historians come and go, good and bad politicians come and go, but we know less about why civilizations come and go.

Since the lifetime of civilizations tends to be outside our common senses and experiences, the subject of the life and death of civilizations does not tend to occur to us.

Only a few have pondered it like Arnold J. Toynbee has (see photo).

Actually, simply exploring this subject is an exercise that will likely cause us to receive different answers from different people if we ask them what 'civilization' means (What Do You Mean - World Civilization?).

Likewise, if we ask someone what "Western Civilization" means, the answers may vary (Dredd Blog on "MOMCOM civilization", cf. Oil-Qaeda & MOMCOM Conspire To Commit Depraved-Heart Murder- 6).

II. Toynbee's Microscope

Toynbee wrote volumes about two dozen or so civilizations that we only think about when we are in a history class or a library, however, unlike us he didn't just skim the surface, no, he followed ugly all the way to the bone:
"In other words, a society does not ever die 'from natural causes', but always dies from suicide or murder --- and nearly always from the former, as this chapter has shown."
(A Study of History, by Arnold J. Toynbee). What? Suicide? Murder? ... He was no ordinary historian was he?

That is just the tip of the iceberg, so to speak, as a world famous encyclopedia points out:
"In the Study Toynbee examined the rise and fall of 26 civilizations in the course of human history, and he concluded that they rose by responding successfully to challenges under the leadership of creative minorities composed of elite leaders. Civilizations declined when their leaders stopped responding creatively, and the civilizations then sank owing to the sins of nationalism, militarism, and the tyranny of a despotic minority.
(Encyclopedia Britannica, emphasis added). Previous posts in this series have zeroed in on the question of what "tyranny" and "despotic minority" meant to him.

III. Siggy's Microscope

Another famous person now practically relegated to the realm of mythology, Sigmund Freud, pointed out the necessity of developing a way of diagnosing the time when a civilization was entering into "suicide" mode:
"If the evolution of civilization has such a far reaching similarity with the development of an individual, and if the same methods are employed in both, would not the diagnosis be justified that many systems of civilization——or epochs of it——possibly even the whole of humanity——have become neurotic under the pressure of the civilizing trends? To analytic dissection of these neuroses, therapeutic recommendations might follow which could claim a great practical interest. I would not say that such an attempt to apply psychoanalysis to civilized society would be fanciful or doomed to fruitlessness. But it behooves us to be very careful, not to forget that after all we are dealing only with analogies, and that it is dangerous, not only with men but also with concepts, to drag them out of the region where they originated and have matured. The diagnosis of collective neuroses, moreover, will be confronted by a special difficulty. In the neurosis of an individual we can use as a starting point the contrast presented to us between the patient and his environment which we assume to be normal. No such background as this would be available for any society similarly affected; it would have to be supplied in some other way. And with regard to any therapeutic application of our knowledge, what would be the use of the most acute analysis of social neuroses, since no one possesses power to compel the community to adopt the therapy? In spite of all these difficulties, we may expect that one day someone will venture upon this research into the pathology of civilized communities. [p. 39]"
...
"Men have brought their powers of subduing the forces of nature
to such a pitch that by using them they could now very easily exterminate one another to the last man. They know this——hence arises a great part of their current unrest, their dejection, their mood of apprehension. [p. 40]"
(Civilization and Its Discontents, Sigmund Freud, 1929, emphasis added). Do you wonder why that therapy was never developed (When You Are Governed By Psychopaths - 2)?

IV. Post Toynbee Views

One way to estimate a civilization's (or empire's) chances of pulling out of 'a' or 'the' nosedive is to identify its momentum:
"... we’ve now reached the point where our chances of ever exiting the nightmare are shrinking. There was a lot of vote-rigging, etc., under ..., but we’re now within striking range of becoming a de facto one-party autocracy — someplace we’ve been heading at least since ..."
(Our chances of ever exiting the nightmare are shrinking). There are other ways of course, and one those ways is predominant (ignore the nose-dive).

In the annals of history and herstory, as the chances of pulling out shrink, the hope-and-don't-worry-be-happy trances increase.

This can be disastrous to personal reputation, country, etc.:
"The stock market crash of 1929 and the subsequent Great Depression cost Fisher much of his personal wealth and academic reputation. He [in]famously predicted, nine days before the crash, that stock prices had 'reached what looks like a permanently high plateau'."
(Wikipedia). Fishing expeditions under false hopes can end up in disaster because not knowing reality from fantasy is basically an Amygdala dynamic (Comparing a Group-Mind Trance to a Cultural Amygdala).

V. Closing Comments

Events related to the many potential futures before us even give scientists and their tools some shock from time to time (Climate Model Problem?, Icy Dicey Truth, Ocean currents are speeding up faster than scientists predicted, Multiple eco-crises could trigger 'systemic collapse': scientists).

Same with politicians who think that elections are the cure Sigmund Freud was talking about (Lessons Learned From The Iowa Caucuses, And Danger Signs Ahead).

That a civilization "does not ever die 'from natural causes', but always dies from suicide or murder" makes civilizations unlike humans, because the vast majority of humans die from natural causes rather than by suicide or murder.

Civilization, then, perhaps is not really human after all (The Machine Religion).

The previous post in this series is here.

Did I mention 'Everybody Knows'?



Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Antarctica 2.0 - 9

Fig. 1 Pelagic Depths
I. Begin Here

In the previous post of this series I focused on the news about the first ever measurements of seawater temperature at the grounding line of the Thwaites Glacier.

That is an incredible bit of news for several reasons, such as since Thwaites is nicknamed 'The Doomsday Glacier' why has it taken so long to get to the bottom of it?

Or, why do we know more about the surface of Mars and the Moon than we know about the bottom of the Earth's oceans?
Fig. 2 Epipelagic Depth
Fig. 3 Mesopelagic Depth
Fig. 4 Bathypelagic Depth
Fig. 5 Abyssopelagic Depth
Fig. 6 Hadopelagic Depth
Fig. 7 All Pelagic Depths

Remember this reality (You Are Here) and:
"A team of scientists has observed, for the first time, the presence of warm water at a vital point underneath a glacier in Antarctica--an alarming discovery that points to the cause behind the gradual melting of this ice shelf while also raising concerns about sea-level rise around the globe.

Warm waters in this part of the world, as remote as they may seem, should serve as a warning to all of us about the potential dire changes to the planet brought about by climate change," explains David Holland, director of New York University's Environmental Fluid Dynamics Laboratory and NYU Abu Dhabi's Center for Global Sea Level Change, which conducted the research. "If these waters are causing glacier melt in Antarctica, resulting changes in sea level would be felt in more inhabited parts of the world.

The recorded warm waters--more than two degrees above freezing--flow beneath the Thwaites Glacier, which is part of the Western Antarctic Ice Sheet. The discovery was made at the glacier's grounding zone--the place at which the ice transitions between resting fully on bedrock and floating on the ocean as an ice shelf and which is key to the overall rate of retreat of a glacier."
(Antarctica 2.0 - 8, emphasis added). The two degrees Celsius above the abstract freezing temperature of zero C is significant as will be shown.

II. About The Graphs

Today's graphs are mean averages of in situ measurements of seawater temperatures in the World Ocean Database (WOD) Zones that encircle Antarctica.

They are presented at the five pelagic depths rather than the thirty-three WOD depths so they fit more easily on one blog page.

Additionally, in some of the zones around Antarctica there are few measurements, which makes the graphs cranky, so averaging them into the pelagic depths smooths them out a bit.

III. The Main Purpose of These Graphs

The main purpose of these graphs today is to contrast the freeze/thaw temperatures of seawater according to the modern TEOS formulas in the TEOS toolbox.

The graphs show the seawater temperature measurements over the past hundred years or so.

Below those temperature graph lines the melt temperature of seawater under those seawater conditions (temperature, salinity, depth) is shown.

The bottom line is that the water around Antarctica will melt tidewater glacier ice when it comes in contact with it.

But more than that, the scientists who checked out the grounding line at Thwaites glacier measured the seawater temperature to be two degrees Celsius (2 deg. C).

That is warmer than the in situ measurements in the WOD database up to last year (2019) as the graphs show.

IV. Closing Comments

In the next post of this series I will show graphs of the sections of Antarctica in terms of how much grounding line (where tidewater glaciers leave the land and begin to float) each one has.

The previous post in this series is here.