Saturday, June 8, 2019

The Photon Current

Fig. 1 The art: "photon current"
I. Size Matters

What is the largest current in the oceans of the world?

Is it the Gulf Stream?

Is it the AMOC?

Is it the current with more flowing water in it than all the river water flowing in all of the rivers of the world (Mysterious Zones of Antarctica - 3)?

No, in terms of the flow of individual quanta, it's the quantum photon stream, i.e. "the photon current" composed of infrared photons (The Ghost Photons).

The range or span of the photon current is as large as the ocean itself, even though the infrared photons themselves are some of the smallest photons in the electromagnetic spectrum.

II. Photon Size

The "size" of a photon is expressed in terms of wavelength and/or frequency.

Interestingly, the longer the wavelength, the "smaller" the photon in terms of the energy it has, and conversely the shorter the wavelength the "larger" the photon in terms of the energy it has (Photon Energy).

The photon "size" I am focusing on, in terms of Ocean Heat Content (OHC), is the infrared sized photons:
"Infrared radiation (IR), or infrared light, is a type of radiant energy that's
Fig. 2a CT @ all WOD Layers
Fig. 2b IR photon m.avg. Count @ all WOD Layers
invisible to human eyes but that we can feel as heat. All objects in the universe emit some level of IR radiation, but two of the most obvious sources are the sun and fire.


IR is a type of electromagnetic radiation, a continuum of frequencies produced when atoms absorb and then release energy. From highest to lowest frequency, electromagnetic radiation includes gamma-rays, X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves and radio waves. Together, these types of radiation make up the electromagnetic spectrum."
(What Is Infrared?). There is another interesting thing about the realm of electromagnetic radiation.
Fig. 3a Hadopelagic
Fig. 3b Abysopelagic
Fig. 3c Bathypelagic
Fig. 3d Mesopelagic
Fig. 3e Epipelagic

It concerns something that the researcher who discovered infrared light discovered about photon size.

Which is that size is not not the only thing that is important about infrared radiation:
"British astronomer William Herschel discovered infrared light in 1800, according to NASA. In an experiment to measure the difference in temperature between the colors in the visible spectrum, he placed thermometers in the path of light within each color of the visible spectrum. He observed an increase in temperature from blue to red, and he found an even warmer temperature measurement just beyond the red end of the visible spectrum.
...
IR radiation is one of the three ways heat is transferred from one place to another, the other two being convection and conduction."
(ibid, emphasis added). In other words, the temperature measured by thermometers is not enough to tell us about the amount of heat content.

So, the fact that infrared photons in seawater, by way of radiation, carry OHC from one place to another, means that we need to know how many infrared photons there are in a particular kilogram (kg) of seawater in order to know the heat content value.

The in situ temperature is not enough in and of itself to tell us how much "heat" content there is.

Conservative Temperature (CT), even though it is a better indicator (because it can tell us about Ocean Heat Flux (OHF) due to it being in thermodynamic proportion to the heat flux and heat content), still can't tell us the OHC of a kg of seawater.

We have to know the potential enthalpy (hO) in order to calculate the number of infrared photons per kg.

III. Sizing Up The Graphs

The thermodynamic proportion between CT and the photon count can be seen in the graphs at Fig.2a - Fig. 2b.

The patterns of the two are identical even though the count digits and temperature digits are not the same.

There is a thermodynamic bond between them that holds together over all depths and over time (Fig. 3a - Fig. 3e).

That pattern bond also exists when OHC and OHF are specifically calculated and graphed (Patterns: Conservative Temperature & Potential Enthalpy - 3).

IV. Chasing OHC Is Chasing Photons

Imagine, as shown in Fig. 4, that the red arrows represent infrared photons from the Sun that are entering into the ocean at the surface.

Fig. 4 Imagine
When the seawater molecules that absorb those photons come near enough to other seawater molecules that have fewer such photons (cooler water), some of the photons will radiate from the warmer water to the cooler water (2nd Law of Thermodynamics).

Over time as more and more photons are added to the ocean, more and more of them radiate downward into cooler waters.

Over a long span of time, since the Industrial Revolution began circa 1750, they have even radiated down into the deepest pelagic depths.

For example in the graph at Fig. 2b since circa 1950 the Hadopelagic (deepest) ocean depth level has had more OHC than the shallower depth level above it (the Abysopelagic). Thermocline theory is at odds with that (Fig. 5).

All of the pelagic depths have a bottom composed of the Earth's crust, covered with sand, soil, rocks, sea shells, or other fragmented solid crustal material.

Fig. 5 "Graph showing a tropical ocean
thermocline(depth vs. temperature). Note the
rapid change between 100 and 1000 meters.
The temperature is nearly constant
after 1500 meters depth."
When that bottom material is cooler than the seawater that is near it, i.e. seawater filled with infrared photons, some of those photons will radiate into that material at the bottom.

Over time, depending on the coolness of the material, and the quantity of infrared photons in the seawater, the photons will radiate deeper into the Earth's crust (the red line between the Earth's crust and the seawater in Fig. 4 is the ocean bottom area where those "missing" photons are absorbed).

Therefore, to follow OHC everywhere it radiates to, the deepest ocean depths must be monitored with CTD instruments in the seawater.

But, there also needs to be some other instruments that can measure in situ temperature values in the crustal material of the ocean bottom.

Those instruments must be placed in the crust material at various depths (e.g. up to 1 meter).

Those two types of instruments will map the flow of photons wherever they go, so that researchers can add up all the heat "at Miller time".

V. Closing Comment: Great Size Of The Ocean

An article in "The Hill" has a big time comment:
"Our ocean sustains life on Earth.

The ocean produces the air we breathe, is linked to much of the water we drink, and is home to more than half of all life on the planet. The ocean drives our economy, feeds, employs and transports us. Our ocean inspires us. We travel to be near it and to learn from and be inspired by its vast and undiscovered wilderness, immense power, and diverse ecosystems. But today our ocean is threatened more than ever before.

Pollution is causing the ocean to warm and become more acidic, and pushing species to the brink of extinction. Without significant efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions, the effects are anticipated to become more destructive.

We cannot meaningfully address the challenges facing our ocean until we address the dismissal of climate science."
(In the climate crisis, power of our ocean is too great to ignore). Yes, the heat in the ocean is too big not to find.

That is, we need to follow the trail of the photon current where ever it goes in order to fully size it up.

The next post in this series is here.

Friday, June 7, 2019

Square Finger 'Splainin'

The Square-Finger Gesture
If you watch politicians and media folk use their bag of on-camera gestures, one that is quite popular now is what I call the "square-finger" gesture.

It is common to all political party members and TV channel media members.

When I first noticed the wide array of spontaneous uses, I began to count how many times a day over the past year it was used during an interviewee's response/explanation to an interviewer's question.

The square-finger gesture is used to "help explain" subject matter of many types.

It does not seem to matter which pundit, what time of day, what type of TV news or talk show, what subject matter you are viewing, or whether the square-finger gesture is used to man-splain or woman-splain what the splainer is 'splainin'.

No, the square-finger gesture is ubiquitous and shows up spontaneously.

... and ...
After going through the mini-shock of even noticing the phenomenon in the first place, then seeking to make sense of it by attempting to count how many times a day it occurs, I next tried to make more sense of the square-finger gesture by determining the context in which the square-finger gesture was used.

I haven't finished that research, but at the moment it seems to be used when the 'splainer has some degree of fear attached to the subject matter being 'splained.

and ...
That is, it is used to minimize some aspect of the subject matter at hand by indicating "this subject matter is only this big, so I am in control of it" a la "Comparing a Group-Mind Trance to a Cultural Amygdala".

I have not yet finished my research on this, so help me out on this one by informing me and fellow Dredd Blog readers if you too have noticed the square-finger gesture (and don't forget to keep sending in your annual helpful responses to "My First Science Fiction Novel").
and ...

and ...
Add caption
While doing so, remember that football is played on both sides of the ball (How to control the TV with gestures).

Thursday, June 6, 2019

Economic War Of The Pacific - 6

Downtown tomorrow
I. Background

This series began some years ago (2009) to point out what is becoming, more and more as time goes on,  news that is moving from the back pages toward the front pages of newspapers (Economic War Of The Pacific, 2, 3, 4, 5).

Today is what some call a "sacred" time when "we" intensify a focus on what "we" consider to be the supreme dynamics that produce what "we" call heroes and perhaps sheroes as "we" peruse history and herstory.

Yes, as "we" peruse events that took place during the many times "we" who are now of "Phase 27" (explained later) "lost it" ... along with the meaning of what that "it" was that "we" lost.

While D-day ("the largest seaborne invasion in history") gives an opportunity to swap 75 year old war stories, another gathering mentioned further back in newspaper pages looks toward the future:
"The deepening of the economic alliance between Russia and China will be high on the agenda as President Xi Jinping meets Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow on Wednesday amid their mutual estranged relations with the United States."
(Politico).

"Destroying arms control treaties is 'unacceptable,' Russian President Vladimir Putin said Wednesday during a bilateral meeting with Chinese President Xi Jinping at the Kremlin.

During the visit, which was aimed at cementing economic ties between the two countries amid China's heated trade war with the United States, Putin thanked Xi for helping their countries achieve a trade turnover of more than $100 billion a year. He added that Russian-Chinese relations have reached an 'unprecedented level'.
" (CNN)

"Chinese President Xi Jinping has described Russia's Vladimir Putin as his 'best friend' during a three-day visit to Moscow focusing on trade and relations between the two countries.

The visit comes as China-US relations have soured over a bitter trade war.

Russia had decided on a pivot to the east years ago after ties worsened with the West over the Ukraine conflict.

The two sides have signed a package of trade deals and Mr Xi also unveiled two pandas for the Moscow Zoo.

The Chinese president arrived on Wednesday and later gave a press conference where he said he had a 'deep personal friendship' with his Russian counterpart.

'In the past six years, we have met nearly 30 times. Russia is the country that I have visited the most times, and President Putin is my best friend and colleague,' Mr Xi said.

Mr Putin echoed the praise saying he was 'pleased to say that Russian-Chinese relations have reached an unprecedented level. It is a global partnership and strategic cooperation.'" (BBC)
The lyrics of an "anti-war song" come to mind, a song which illustrates that things have not changed much since it was written:

"There's battle lines being drawn
Nobody's right if everybody's wrong
Young people speaking their minds
Getting so much resistance from behind
"

(For What It Is Worth). Can you imagine trying to calculate the "worth" of peace (How Much Is Peace Actually Worth?) while dwelling in a civilization that is quickly reaching Phase 27 ... in the history and herstory of civilizations (The Rus People)?

By "Phase 27" I am alluding to:
"In the Study Toynbee examined the rise and fall of 26 civilizations in the course of human history, and he concluded that they rose by responding successfully to challenges under the leadership of creative minorities composed of elite leaders. Civilizations declined when their leaders stopped responding creatively, and the civilizations then sank owing to the sins of nationalism, militarism, and the tyranny of a despotic minority."
(Encyclopedia Britannica, emphasis added). Adding a one to the previous 26, we calculate that we are at Phase 27, but where is that at (You Are Here)?

Unfortunately, along with the greatest generation which has already done all it can do now, "we" (Phase 27) are the only members of the group of 27 civilizations that have the ultimate power to stop it all.

By "stop it all" I mean stop life on Earth as we know it with a nuclear war and/or global warming induced climate change, either of which can eradicate "life's habitat" on this planet.

II. Foreground

The future is closer to us than the past is, i.e., the future is the foreground.

But, for some reason or lack thereof, "our cognition" lies to us and says that the foreground is further away than the background is.

III. Closing Conversation

Once upon a time in the Matrix:
"What is your background sir," asks the interviewer.

"I would rather contemplate my foreground sir," replies the interviewee.
(Who is the “One” in The Matrix?).

The next post in this series is here, the previous post in this series is here.







Tuesday, June 4, 2019

In Search Of Ocean Heat - 6

Pelagic Depths
I. Background

In today's post I use World Ocean Database (WOD) data and TEOS-10 to calculate Ocean Heat Content (OHC) in the WOD Zones along the coast of China and the USA.

If you want to explore the nitty-gritty of OHC you can peruse the previous posts in this series (In Search Of Ocean Heat, 2, 3, 4, 5).

In the first post of the series, Professor McDougall was featured.

He discusses the problem in current software models when it comes to calculating OHC.

The second post talked about and used the updated WOD datasets of 2018, which updated their 2013 data.

China Conservative Temperature
China OHC & SA @ Epipelagic
China OHC & SA @ Mesopelagic
China OHC & SA @Bathypelagic
USA Seacoast Code 760, Abyssopelagic
USA Seacoast Code 760, Bathypelagic
USA Seacoast Code 760, Epipelagic
USA Seacoast Code 760, Mesopelagic
USA Seacoast Code 760, CT at depth
USA Seacoast Code 821, CT at depth
USA Seacoast Code 823, CT at depth
USA Seacoast Code 940, CT at depth
USA Seacoast Code 960, CT at depth
The third post focuses in on how to calculate OHC (potential enthalpy, hO) and Ocean Heat Flux (OHF) with easy to use TEOS-10 functions for calculating Conservative Temperature (CT), Potential Enthalpy (hO), and infra-red photon content as the carrier of "heat."

The fourth post discusses and graphs the infra-red photon content of seawater using CT, hO (and among other things, Planck's Constant).

The fifth post reiterates some and talks about Gibbs and the exactness of his work, pointing out that Albert Einstein called Gibbs the greatest mind in American scientific history.

II. Some Typical Graphs

In today's graphs we apply that background to the coastal waters along the coast of China, which has only one coastline code (610).

That is the coastline where the busiest seaports of our current world civilization are located.

That background is also applied to the coastline codes of the USA where there US seaports are located (760, 821, 823, 940, and 960).

The busiest seaport in the USA is Los Angeles, which rates number 18 in the top twenty world seaports.

These rankings change from time to time (#1 can become #2, and on down the line), so one must recheck the list each year or so to stay current (Top 50).

The important lesson to keep in mind is that when one is using CT it pictures the pattern and trend of OHC, OHF, hO, and infra-red photon content of seawater (per kg).

In other words, the graphed CT pattern and trend as it moves up and down along a time line is also the pattern of OHC and OHF.

That is because, through Gibbs' formulas in the TEOS-10 toolbox, the thermodynamic equilibrium and proportionality is preserved (Patterns: Conservative Temperature & Potential Enthalpy, 2, 3).

That proportion holds for whatever portion of the ocean and at whatever depth the in situ measurements have been taken.

This makes it much easier to quickly detect ongoing changes anywhere there are measurements stored in datasets.

One can peruse graphs of CT, then decide where more focus is needed.

III. Future Research

Researchers have continually pointed out that a major need at this time is to measure the Hadopelagic, the deepest depths.

Recently we saw a photograph of a plastic bag at the bottom of the ocean in the Hadopelagic (Plastic proliferates at the bottom of world's deepest ocean trench).

That plastic is even found inside the deep sea creatures (A Troubling Discovery in the Deepest Ocean Trenches).

That means we can also take temperature, salinity, and depth measurements while we are down there.

That is the scientific way to follow OHC and OHF so as to develop the complete picture.

It would also be instructive to periodically take the temperature of the ocean water at the bottom, as well as measurements to some shallow depth below the sandy surface of the ocean bottom.

I say that because if the bottom is cooler than the ocean water, the photons will flow from the sea water into the sand, and we could lose track of the OHC and OHF.

IV. Closing Comments

We hear a lot about the "missing ocean heat" so we should seek out and follow the infrared photon radiation where ever it takes us.

Lots of the "heat" carrying photons flow into cooler water around them, or into Tidewater Glacier ice, or into ice shelves.

Why would the photons not also do the same at the ocean bottom where the liquid seawater contacts cooler sandy solids?

There are several vast potential "hideouts" for infrared photons.

If we don't want to have missing OHC then we will have to add up ALL infrared photon radiation not only from all ocean depths, but also from those other places we aren't adequately measuring yet (The Photon Current).

The next post in this series is here, the previous post in this series is here.

Monday, June 3, 2019

Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Rule 57

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

Robert Swan Mueller III,
Plaintiff.

vs.

United States Department of Justice,
Defendant.

Complaint For Declaratory Judgment

COMES now the plaintiff Robert Swan Mueller III, and alleges and avers as follows:

1) At all times material, plaintiff was a Special Counsel appointed by the Acting Director of the Department of Justice to investigate Russian Government attacks against the United States which unlawfully impacted the 2016 presidential election.

2) A current Department of Justice opinion states that it is not legal to indict a sitting president while he or she is in office, even if that president has committed a crime or crimes concerning the aforesaid attack on that United States election.

3) But for the aforesaid opinion of the Department of Justice, plaintiff would proceed to a criminal indictment based upon his office's investigations of activities of the current president.

Prayer For Relief

Plaintiff respectfully requests that the Court declare, pursuant to Rule 57 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and 28 U.S. Code § 2201, that the Department of Justice opinion is not supported by the Constitution and/or laws of the United States, and therefore that the plaintiff may proceed to indict the president for any and all alleged crimes even while the president is in office.

Respectfully submitted this______ day of ___________ 201_.