|DNA is not alive|
The genes, tRNA, and mRNA are extracted from the "ORIGIN" section of the GBFF file based on the locations set forth in that file.
With one difference, which is that the Thymine ('T' or 't') in the DNA nucleotides is changed into Uracil ('U' or 'u') in the appendix's RNA sequences.
That is because RNA is composed of 'U' molecules rather than 'T' molecules (but both have 'A', 'C', and 'G' molecules) as I pointed out in the nucleotide sequences of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Quantum Biology - 2.
A prominent microbiology site asked: "Do you consider mitochondrial DNA to be part of a eukaryote's genome?", to which I replied:
(Talmudic Question #193, Small Things Considered). Beauty may be only skin deep, but sexy goes all the way to the mitochondria and nucleus ... except for a few less sexy realms such as Leiolepis Ngovantrii:
"You could call it the surprise du jour: A popular food on Vietnamese menus has turned out to be a lizard previously unknown to science, scientists say.
"A virgin birth is expected this Christmas, though this particular nativity scene will be set in a zoo instead of a stable.
That's because the virgin in question is Flora the Komodo dragon, a giant lizard at Chester Zoo in England that has laid fertile eggs despite never having had a mate.
DNA tests confirmed Flora was the sole parent, says Chester Zoo curator of lower vertebrates Kevin Buley."
Getting back to the sexy mitochondrial human DNA:
"The mitochondrial genome is built of 16,569 DNA base pairs, whereas the nuclear genome is made of 3.3 billion DNA base pairs ... The mitochondrial genome contains 37 genes that encode 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs." (Nature)
"In humans ... mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother..." (Wikipedia)
That's not all, so:
"Nuclear DNA (nDNA), or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid, is the DNA contained within each cell nucleus of a eukaryotic organism. It encodes for the majority of the genome in eukaryotes, with mitochondrial DNA and plastid DNA coding for the rest. It adheres to Mendelian inheritance, with information coming from two parents, one male and one female—rather than matrilineally (through the mother) as in mitochondrial DNA.
(Wikipedia, Nuclear DNA). This kind of sexy is all about biological history and biological herstory.
Since the mitochondrial DNA (and RNA?) is more likely to experience mutations, let's review the quantum physics involved, an aspect (non-biological quantum photon-tunneling) that is very often overlooked in both human and virus genetic research:
"Furthermore, we find a large tautomeric occupation probability of 1.73 × 10−4, suggesting that such proton transfer may well play a far more important role in DNA mutation than has hitherto been suggested. Our results could have far-reaching consequences for current models of genetic mutations."
"Using both the C-G location and the A-U location in an RNA virus analysis seems quite likely to cut that Cornell University calculation in half or less (1.73 × 10−2)."
(Quantum Biology - 2). It is worth considering since the quantity of RNA mutations raises these questions.
IV. Closing Comments
Again, it is way past time to stop wondering "Why are RNA virus mutation rates so damn high" so we can, instead, experience more movements from Newtonian mechanics to Quantum Mechanics in biology.The next post in this series is here, previous post in this series is here.