Thursday, July 29, 2021

Quantum Oceanography - 10

Fig. 1 Antarctica Sectors / Areas
In this series we are considering basic photon physics, and exploring it as it applies to the Oceanography that has not yet advanced into Quantum Oceanography:

"In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is how matter (typically electrons bound in atoms) takes up a photon's energy — and so transforms electromagnetic energy into internal energy of the absorber (for example, thermal energy)".

(Wikipedia photon absorption, cf. Beer-Lambert law). Things will move along once researchers grasp the ghost photons and ghost plumes that heretofore, in grandfather's oceanography (for the most-part) evaded discovery (The Ghost Plumes, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15; The Ghost Photons, 2, 3).

The oceans vary in quantity and type of quanta of their seawater, but for the most part, here is what they are made of:

The six most abundant ions of seawater are chloride (Cl), sodium (Na+), sulfate (SO24), magnesium (Mg2+), calcium (Ca2+), and potassium (K+). By weight these ions make up about 99 percent of all sea salts. The amount of these salts in a volume of seawater varies because of the addition or removal of water locally (e.g., through precipitation and evaporation). The salt content in seawater is indicated by salinity (S), which is defined as the amount of salt in grams dissolved in one kilogram of seawater and expressed in parts per thousand. Salinities in the open ocean have been observed to range from about 34 to 37 parts per thousand (0/00 or ppt), which may also be expressed as 34 to 37 practical salinity units (psu).


Chlorine (Cl), chemical element, the second lightest member of the halogen elements, or Group 17 (Group VIIa) of the periodic table. Chlorine is a toxic, corrosive, greenish yellow gas that is irritating to the eyes and to the respiratory system.


sodium (Na), chemical element of the alkali metal group (Group 1 [Ia]) of the periodic table. Sodium is a very soft silvery-white metal. Sodium is the most common alkali metal and the sixth most abundant element on Earth, comprising 2.8 percent of Earth’s crust. It occurs abundantly in nature in compounds, especially common salt—sodium chloride (NaCl)—which forms the mineral halite and constitutes about 80 percent of the dissolved constituents of seawater. [emphasis added]

Sulfate, also spelled Sulphate, any of numerous chemical compounds related to sulfuric acid, H2SO4. One group of these derivatives is composed of salts containing the sulfate ion, SO42-, and positively charged ions such as those of sodium, magnesium, or ammonium; a second group is composed of esters, in which the hydrogen atoms of sulfuric acid have been replaced by carbon-containing combining groups such as methyl (CH3) or ethyl (C2H5).

Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure.

Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. As an alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth's crust, and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium. The most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate, found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, and apatite are also sources of calcium. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", which was obtained from heating limestone.

Potassium is a chemical element with the symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19. Potassium is a silvery-white metal that is soft enough to be cut with a knife with little force.[5] Potassium metal reacts rapidly with atmospheric oxygen to form flaky white potassium peroxide in only seconds of exposure. It was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals, all of which have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, that is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge – a cation, that combines with anions to form salts. Potassium in nature occurs only in ionic salts. Elemental potassium reacts vigorously with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite hydrogen emitted in the reaction, and burning with a lilac-colored flame. It is found dissolved in sea water (which is 0.04% potassium by weight[6][7]), and occurs in many minerals such as orthoclase, a common constituent of granites and other igneous rocks.[8]

(Seawater, Britannica). This raises the question, do the 'salinity' elements in seawater emit the infrared photons that melt glacial ice, or do the h2o molecules in seawater do it alone?

Fig. 2 'Heat' is infrared photons

Today's graphs are in appendices: Sector A, Sector B, Sector C, Sector D, Sector E, and Sector F (they may help answer the question).

These graphs concern different areas of Antarctica's glacial grounding lines (Fig. 1, Antarctica 2.0 - 11).

They indicate 'maybe both' (i.e. both the h2o molecules and the other 'salinity' molecules in seawater may all emit infrared photons which enter the glacial ice's h2o molecules and cause a heat increase until melting takes place, Fig. 2).

The previous post in this series is here.

Appendix Sector A

This is an appendix to: Quantum Oceanography -10


The following graphs detail Conservative Temperature (CT), Absolute Salinity (SA), mol count per m3 of infrared photons emanating from seawater into glacial ice (causing melt), and the quantum proportion of those three values.

Due to varying currents, length of grounding lines, temperature, and salinity elements in the seawater, different sectors/areas of Antarctica have differing values, as shown on the graphs.





Appendix Sector B

This is an appendix to: Quantum Oceanography -10


The following graphs detail Conservative Temperature (CT), Absolute Salinity (SA), mol count per m3 of infrared photons emanating from seawater into glacial ice (causing melt), and the quantum proportion of those three values.

Due to varying currents, length of grounding lines, temperature, and salinity elements in the seawater, different sectors/areas of Antarctica have differing values, as shown on the graphs.





Appendix Sector C

This is an appendix to: Quantum Oceanography -10


The following graphs detail Conservative Temperature (CT), Absolute Salinity (SA), mol count per m3 of infrared photons emanating from seawater into glacial ice (causing melt), and the quantum proportion of those three values.

Due to varying currents, length of grounding lines, temperature, and salinity elements in the seawater, different sectors/areas of Antarctica have differing values, as shown on the graphs.





Appendix Sector D

This is an appendix to: Quantum Oceanography -10


The following graphs detail Conservative Temperature (CT), Absolute Salinity (SA), mol count per m3 of infrared photons emanating from seawater into glacial ice (causing melt), and the quantum proportion of those three values.

Due to varying currents, length of grounding lines, temperature, and salinity elements in the seawater, different sectors/areas of Antarctica have differing values, as shown on the graphs.





Appendix Sector E

This is an appendix to: Quantum Oceanography -10


The following graphs detail Conservative Temperature (CT), Absolute Salinity (SA), mol count per m3 of infrared photons emanating from seawater into glacial ice (causing melt), and the quantum proportion of those three values.

Due to varying currents, length of grounding lines, temperature, and salinity elements in the seawater, different sectors/areas of Antarctica have differing values, as shown on the graphs.

 





Appendix Sector F

This is an appendix to: Quantum Oceanography -10


The following graphs detail Conservative Temperature (CT), Absolute Salinity (SA), mol count per m3 of infrared photons emanating from seawater into glacial ice (causing melt), and the quantum proportion of those three values.

Due to varying currents, length of grounding lines, temperature, and salinity elements in the seawater, different sectors/areas of Antarctica have differing values, as shown on the graphs.





Monday, July 26, 2021

Congratulations To Bob Dylan - 3

This series expresses what many Dredd Blog readers understand (Congratulations To Bob Dylan, 2).

This one is special too, happy eighth decade:




The previous post in this series is here.

Quantum Oceanography - 9

Where da heat at?
In this series Dredd Blog has discussed the importance of considering the interaction of infrared photons in seawater with glacial ice at the grounding lines in Antarctica (Quantum Oceanography, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8).

Ice, including glacial ice at the grounding lines of glaciers in Antarctica, will absorb infrared photons at several wavelengths and energy levels (i.e. infrared photons from the seawater):

 "The interactions of electromagnetic radiation with ice ... are determined by the refractive index and absorption coefficient (the ‘optical constants’) of pure ice as functions of wavelength. Bulk ... absorptance ... [is] influenced [by] ... bubbles ... and brine inclusions ... The absorption spectrum of liquid water resembles that of ice ...The optical properties of ice ... are important for the energy budgets of ... infrared radiation, and therefore the climate, over large parts of the Earth’s surface." 

(Warren 2018, cf. Grundy 1988). This hints at the broad receptiveness which glacial ice has for seawater's infrared photons, whether they are emitted from the H2O elements or from the 'salinity' (SA) elements (Cl, Na+, SO24−, Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+) in seawater.

Since Antarctica has about 200 feet of sealevel change stored there as ice, watching the photon flow from the seawater into the ice is an important research activity. 

Especially now, since this is a timely moment for watching global heating spread deep and wide, according to several whispers about an upcoming IPCC report:

"Against a backdrop of fires and floods, researchers are meeting virtually to finalise a key climate science study. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is preparing the most comprehensive assessment on the state of global heating since 2013. Over the next two weeks, the scientists will go through their findings line by line with representatives of 195 governments.

Experts say the report will be a "wake-up call" to governments.

It is expected that the short, 40-page Summary for Policymakers will play an important role in guiding global leaders who will come to Glasgow in November to deal with critical climate questions."

(Yahoo News). Sounds ominous.

The 'spontaneous' part of the Second Law of Thermodynamics is something to focus on: The first statement of the 2nd law of thermodynamics - heat flows spontaneously from a hot to a cold body (Physics, cf. here).

The glacial ice is melted spontaneously, so we can't wait 16 years (Zero Years).

The next post in this series is here, the previous post in this series is here.


Grounding line news ... and ...


Saturday, July 24, 2021

Quantum Oceanography - 8

Fig. 1 Antarctic Areas (Sectors)

In today's post I want to express some thought experiments about, in general, heat in the form of photons in seawater, but specifically, where do most of the photons emerge and/or lodge in seawater?

It is a question that scientific literature does not seem to explore a lot, except for the realm of visible electromagnetic photons (a.k.a. 'light').

The electromagnetic realm I am contemplating in today's post is infrared photons which are not visible to our eyes.

We can feel electromagnetic infrared photons though, because they are also called 'heat'.

More specifically:

"Radiant heat, also known as thermal radiation, is the transfer of electromagnetic radiation which describes the heat exchange of energy by photons. Radiant heat is a mechanism for heat transfer which does not require a medium in which it propagates (unlike convection and conduction). All substances above absolute zero have thermal energy, which means that the particles contained in them have some form of motion. This motion of the particles contributes to the temperature of the object, with objects of 'ordinary' temperatures (less than 1000 Kelvin) emitting their radiant heat primarily in the infrared spectrum of light. The photons emitted by these moving charged particles will travel at the speed of light until they hit another particle, which absorbs its energy as kinetic energy."

(Radiant Heat, emphasis added). In seawater, as mentioned in the previous post of this series, those photons can reside in several different molecules/atoms:

"A closing hypothesis:

Ocean model calculations as well as white-board non-quantum calculations concerning heat transfer (via hO) from the seawater into the glacial ice are likely to underestimate the melting of the ice unless they consider a sort of hidden 'game changer'.

That is, the photons from the seawater can radiate from three atoms (two hydrogen, one oxygen) in H2O molecules, but also from even more atoms in the molecules of the 'salinity' (SA) elements (Cl, Na+, SO24−, Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+).

Thus, the seawater-originating photons radiate into the glacial ice that generally contains only H2O molecules, i.e. no 'salinity'.

This increases the hO of the ice and diminishes the hO of the seawater, but the total potential enthalpy (ice hO + seawater hO) is constant.

Nevertheless, more photons ('heat') end up in the glacial ice H2O than were in the seawater H2O due to the 'additional' photons emanating from the 'salinity' quanta portion of seawater.

Just sayin' ..."

(Quantum Oceanography - 7). I think I have some support for this in today's graphs constructed from World Ocean Database data.

They indicate that an increase in photon mol (a.k.a. mole) content can take place based upon the seawater's Absolute Salinity (SA), not just Conservative Temperature (CT) alone.

The graphs cover Antarctic areas/sectors as shown in Fig. 1 (some graphs could not be made for some areas due to a dearth of in situ data there).

The graphs are: Appendix CT, Appendix SA, Appendix Qp, and Appendix Mols.

The next post in this series is here, the previous post in this series is here.

Appendix Qp

This is an appendix to: Quantum Oceanography - 8






 

Appendix CT

This is an appendix to: Quantum Oceanography - 8








 

Appendix Mols

This is an appendix to: Quantum Oceanography - 8






 

Appendix SA

This is an appendix to: Quantum Oceanography - 8








 

Wednesday, July 14, 2021

Quantum Oceanography - 7

Fig. 1 Southern Ocean
Fig. 2 Direction of ACC Flow

This series is about how to apply quantum mechanics to seawater (Quantum Oceanography, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).

The application of the Thermodynamic Equation Of Seawater (TEOS-10 toolkit, C++ version) is phase one.

Using the TEOS-10 concepts of Conservative Temperature (CT) and Absolute Salinity (SA) researchers can plumb the ocean depths in ways that were not available prior to TEOS-10.

The use of in situ measurements from the World Ocean Database (WOD) that are converted into TEOS-10 values is the foundation of this area of Dredd Blog research.

Once those values are calculated Dredd Blog uses those and the "Photon Class" (C++ programming language) to calculate the number of moles (mols) of photons per kilogram of seawater.

This is important because the Second Law of Thermodynamics, among other things, indicates that hot flows to cold (heat flows to areas with less heat until equilibrium is reached).

Fig. 3 CT

In one realm within Oceanography, which deals with the place where seawater causes glaciers to melt, this is an important consideration (Antarctica 2.0 - 11).

It is a breakthrough to realize that this "ocean heat" transfer is a function of infrared photon flow from the molecules in seawater into the molecules of glacial ice.

This infrared photon flow takes place with and without direct water/ice contact,  just as you can feel the heat of a fireplace without actually touching the flames (the heat is flowing from hot to cold by way of radiating infrared photons which exit the molecules of the burning wood in the fireplace to enter the molecules of your body).

In the glacial melt sense, this eventually causes a plume flow (The Ghost Photons, 2, 3; The Ghost Plumes, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).

Fig. 4 (ho)

In today's post we are considering those dynamics as they apply to the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica (see Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).

Two sets of graphs are also presented in Appendix IceMelt and Appendix IceMelt Fill which graph the Conservative Temperature (CT) in the ocean water around the glacial grounding lines as well as the CT values at which the glacial ice melts at different Pelagic Depths.

There are also four graphs (Fig. 3, Fig. 4, Fig. 5, and Fig. 6) which show the patterns of CT, Potential Enthalpy (ho), photon quantity (mols), and their proportional pattern (Qp).

Fig. 5 Photon Count

The gist of it is that TEOS-10 contains the refined scientific formulas that allow exploration of thermal dynamics in seawater based upon the in situ measurements taken with CTD instruments.

Particularly interesting is "Potential Enthalpy" (ho).

As Dr. McDougal and Dr. Barker show with the Teos-10 function "gsw_potential_enthalpy" and the paper Potential Enthalpy: A Conservative Oceanic Variable for Evaluating Heat Content and Heat Fluxes
(McDougall 2003, EGU 2021), it is proper to call ho "ocean heat".

Fig. 6 Quantum Proportion (Qp)

For additional clarity, the conceptual and thermal linkage patterns of CT, ho, and photon count is detailed on one graph as Quantum Proportion (Qp),

This proportional pattern, as shown (Fig. 6), matches the individual patterns in Fig. 3, Fig. 4, and Fig. 5.

The logical relation among CT, ho, and quantity of infrared photons (mols/kg) is a natural proportion, because the CT pattern is linked to the amount of ocean heat, which is stored in the seawater molecules as infrared photons.

That is the essence of Quantum Oceanography in terms of how ocean heat is transferred a la the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

The "take home" meaning is that heat is not just transferred by ocean currents, it is also transferred by infrared photon radiation.

For example, ocean heat flows from seawater into glacial ice whether the seawater molecules are in direct proximity ("direct contact") with glacial ice molecules or whether they are further away.

Infrared photons travel through space like solar infrared heat radiation (as photons) travels through space to the Earth.

No direct contact is required.

Closing Comments

A closing hypothesis:

Ocean model calculations as well as white-board non-quantum calculations concerning heat transfer (via hO) from the seawater into the glacial ice are likely to underestimate the melting of the ice unless they consider a sort of hidden 'game changer'.

That is, the photons from the seawater can radiate from three atoms (two hydrogen, one oxygen) in H2O molecules, but also from even more atoms in the molecules of the 'salinity' (SA) elements (Cl, Na+, SO24−, Mg2+, Ca2+, and K+).

Thus, the seawater-originating photons radiate into the glacial ice that generally contains only H2O molecules, i.e. no 'salinity'.

This increases the hO of the ice and diminishes the hO of the seawater, but the total potential enthalpy (ice hO + seawater hO) is constant.

Nevertheless, more photons ('heat') end up in the glacial ice H2O than were in the seawater H2O due to the 'additional' photons emanating from the 'salinity' quanta portion of seawater.

Just sayin' ...

The next post in this series is here, the previous post in this series is here.