Thursday, August 27, 2020

On The Origin Of The Home Of COVID-19 - 16


I have pointed out in previous posts of this series, in various ways, that meat, eggs, and offal transport microbes and viruses (On The Origin Of The Home Of COVID-19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15).

It has been known in the realms of microbiology and virology for some time that hundreds of species of bacteria inhabit the stomach (rumen) of animals that become food on our tables at meal time, or in Big Macs and Whoppers.

Not to mention the food on our plates at restaurants.

This has caused serious concern to some international entities:
[in the rumen]"Bacteria... (> 200 species) ..." (p. 11)
...
"Both human health and disease are often linked to ruminant animals: health through the nutritive value of meat and dairy products, and disease predominantly through the direct spread of zoonotic organisms or the contamination of food and the environment with manure. Worldwide the meat industry has found itself in the midst of controversy over a number of large-scale food-borne contamination incidents. These include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), E. coli O157:H7 infection, Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 with multiple antibiotic resistance, and chemical residues, which have led to the perception that meat, is not always a 'safe' product."
...
"The animal industry not only produces meat but is also the source of manure and waste effluent which are used as fertiliser. Manure and effluent are potential sources of contamination by enteric pathogens to crops (both for animal and human consumption) and waterways (Wallace, 1999; McQuigge et al., 2000). The upsurge in organic farming with increased use of manure could be a source of increased contamination if manure is not properly stored or composted (Himathongkham et al., 1999; Guan and Holley, 2003; Duffy, 2003). It is paradoxical that incidences of food-borne disease are increasing in industrialised countries. The factors involved in this increasing incidence are complex: production and distribution systems for food have changed as well as eating and cooking habits, and there is increased movement of people globally (Altekruse and Swerdlow, 1996; Lederberg, 1997)."
...
"Current intensive animal husbandry practises promote pathogens in the animal populations through contaminated feed (often by rodents or birds), and environmental (soil and water) contamination (Johnston, 1990; McEwan and Fedorka-Cray, 2002). Potential pathways for the spread of these organisms from animals to humans are shown in Figure 2. There is also concern that intensive animal production systems may be contributing to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in human infections through the transmission of resistant gut bacteria and associated genetic elements from animals to humans (Khachatourians, 1998; McEwan and Fedorka-Cray, 2002)." (p. 20)
...
"Rumen Bacteriophage diversity: Bacteriophages are abundant (107 – 109 particles per ml) in the rumen ecosystem but the diversity of these viruses is poorly understood as well as their interactions with the other microorganisms in this ecosystem. They appear to influence other microbial population structure and density through bacterial lysis in the rumen as well as being intimately involved in the exchange of genetic information with other microbial populations (Klieve et al., 1991; Klieve and Swain, 1993; Swain et al., 1996; Klieve and Hegarty, 1999). The first comprehensive metagenomic analysis of the bovine rumen virome was reported recently in which 28,000 different viral genotypes were identified (Berg Miller et al., 2012)."
...
"The genotypes belonged to the following Families in descending order of prevalence; Siphoviridae, Myoviridae, Podoviridae, Unclassified, Herpesviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Mimiviridae, Poxviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Adenoviridae, Bicaudaviridae. Prophages dominated lytic phages by 2:1." [Bacteria and archaea serve as natural hosts to these families - in other words bacteria are he natural homes of viruses]
...
"The sequence analysis indicated that the phages [viruses] were associated with the main bacterial phyla including Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes thus suggesting a role in shaping these bacterial communities. Rumen phage also influence the efficiency of digestion in the rumen through the spontaneous lysis of bacterial populations by lytic phage which will also influence protein supply to the animal from microbial protein synthesized in the rumen (Swain et al., 1996)." (pp. 27-28)
(COMMISSION ON GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE MICRO-ORGANISMS AND RUMINANT DIGESTION: STATE OF KNOWLEDGE, TRENDS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS, emphasis added). It is disconcerting that "Unclassified" is the forth most prevalent inhabitant of the rumen of animals that become food in countries around the world.

II. Coronavirus In Food Animals

It has also been know for some time that the coronavirus is rampant in food animals:
"Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) has a major impact on the cattle industry, with economic losses occurring due to morbidity, mortality, treatment and prevention costs, loss of production, and reduced carcass value (1). Infectious agents associated with BRD include viruses [bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine parainfluenza-3 (PI-3V), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 and 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine adenoviruses (BAdV), bovine coronavirus (BCV)], and bacteria (Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni, and Mycoplasma spp.) (1,2). From the virus standpoint, BCV has received recent attention as BRD continues to be a problem in the industry, despite the presence and widespread use of modified live virus (MLV) and killed BHV-1, BVDV, PI-3V, and BRSV products.
...
"Clinicians and diagnosticians are often called upon to examine for agents other than the 4 viruses listed, bacteria, and Mycoplasma spp. Bovine coronavirus (BCV) has been identified in cattle pulled and treated for BRD and/or in healthy cattle in numerous studies in the United States and Canada and in European countries using viral isolations from nasal swabs and serology-detecting seroconversions indicating active infections (3,4,5−12). These cited studies have focused on virus isolations from the nasal cavity for the materials for virus isolation. Bovine coronavirus has also been identified in pneumonic lungs, often in combination with other viruses, bacteria, and/or Mycoplasma spp. (2,13,14). Experimental studies have identified BCV-infected cattle with epithelial lesions in the turbinates, trachea, and lungs as well as with interstitial pneumonia (15)."
...
"Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence or absence of various levels of BCV antibodies can be used to predict whether a calf would be treated in the feedlot (9,10). Several studies have indicated that cattle may be shedding BCV in the nasal secretions on arrival at the feedlot (d 0) or perhaps before delivery to the feedlot (6,12). It is therefore important to examine practices in the beef-breeding herd and the immune status of the calves for BCV before their entry into the auction-market system where they might be exposed to cattle that are shedding BCV. The objectives of the present study were to: 1) compare BCV antibody levels in beef calves from different herds in samples collected post-weaning and before commingling with other herds; 2) correlate serum BCV antibodies in fresh calves (ranch-reared, non-commingled) collected before delivery to commercial feedlot with treatment for BRD after arrival at the feedlot; and 3) use virus isolation from nasal swabs and from lungs and serology to determine the dynamics of BCV infection in commingled, mixed-source calves transported to a research feedlot." (The Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, p. 191)
...
"Of the 22 calves used as sentinel calves in OSU-1, 9 out of 22 (40.9%) were BCV virus positive in both the nasal swabs and the BAL samples on the day of processing, day 0 (Table I). Calves shedding the virus on day 0 cleared the virus by day 8 as nasal swab and BAL samples were all negative at collection day 8. Convalescent serum was not collected from 2 of the calves as 1 calf died with BRD (#562) and another calf (#544) was removed from the study due to lameness. Fifteen of the remaining 20 sentinel calves (75%) seroconverted. Calves that were shedding BCV at day 0 had BCV antibody levels of 8, 4, or , 4 on day 0, whereas calves with BCV antibody titers of 32 or higher at d 0 did not shed virus during the study, although they often seroconverted. Six sentinel animals remained healthy and seroconverted to BCV."
...
"The current study also identified and confirmed that calves com- mingled from mixed sources, from auction-market sources, and from wide geographic regions across the midwestern and south-central US states probably have BCV-active infections upon delivery to the feedlot and are shedding the virus. Similar to those in other studies, the calves in this study cleared the infections by day 8 after arrival. Also similar to other studies, the virus was found in the nasal swabs. In this study, BCV was also recovered in lung samples [bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)], which were collected along with the nasal swabs. While BCV is not unlike other viruses that are shed in the nasal swabs during active infections, the finding of the BCV in the lung-derived samples suggests that BVC probably plays a role in lung lesions such as pneumonias."
...
"Bovine coronavirus (BCV) appears to be an early type of infection among the commingled calves. Calves in 2 different groups in this study identified BCV infections (nasal swab and BAL virus isolations) from sick calves in the first 4 d after arrival, but not from calves from 5 to 14 d after arrival. Another aspect of this study was that BCV was recovered from some healthy calves as well. In addition, active infections for BCV appear quite common as noted by the large number of seroconversions in both sick and healthy animals. It is common to find seroconversions to several bovine viruses among cattle under feedlot conditions as noted for BVDV, PI-3V, and BRSV (20,21)." (p. 197)
(Bovine coronavirus (BCV) infections in transported commingledbeef cattle and sole-source ranch calves, The Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 2011; 75:191–199, emphasis added).

III. All In The Family

The coronavirus "family" is noted in the genomic data of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS coronavirus 2) as has been shown in previous posts in this series.

In other words, the genetic data indicates that the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus can be found in humans, poulty, swine, and cattle.

It is not at all unusual to find a caronavirus in humans, poulty, swine, and cattle:
"Coronaviruses (CoVs) cause respiratory and gastrointestinal disease in humans, poultry, swine, and cattle."
(Emerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 26, No. 2, February 2020, p. 255). That is keeping it in the family:
"Coronavirus is the common name for Coronaviridae and Orthocoronavirinae, also called Coronavirinae. Coronaviruses cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, the viruses cause respiratory infections, including the common cold, which are typically mild, though rarer forms such as SARS (including the one causing COVID-19) and MERS can be lethal. Symptoms vary in other species: in chickens, they cause an upper respiratory disease, while in cows and pigs coronaviruses cause diarrhea. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections. They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, among the largest for an RNA virus (second only to a 41-kb nidovirus recently discovered in planaria)."
(Wikipedia, emphasis added). The coronavirus lineage evinces  a lot of changes because of the way they are "made" (the destruction of their natural place inside bacteria when antibiotics and other toxins destroy their "home").

IV. Closing Comments

Look through the following appendices (to previous posts in this series) and you will see lists of the lineage of SARS-CoV-2 in animals and humans going back to Coronaviridae (Appendix MT276327 A, Appendix MN997409 C, Appendix AN-1-99).

Remember to be careful when a friend or colleague tells you, as you are driving down a road after a hurricane, "that sign we just passed that said 'bridge out ahead' is not proof that the bridge ahead is really out".

There are different kinds of proof (I like to tell some of my lawyer friends that "proof" is something the jury provides ... all we can provide is "evidence").

The next post in this series is here, the previous post in this series is here.

Tuesday, August 25, 2020

On The Origin Of The Home Of COVID-19 - 15

The mass-slaughter-of-animals-for-food industry
Some six years ago I indicated that mistreatment of the flora and fauna of the Earth could lead to events that much of the media and many researchers would blame on microbes and viruses, but which in reality were caused by civilization's mistreatment of the Earth's environment (The Real Dangers With Microbes & Viruses, What Did The Mass Extinctions Do To Viruses and Microbes).

In this current series I have pointed out the undisputed reality that a relevant portion of the mistreatment of flora and fauna is done by "the mass-slaughter-of-animals-for-food industry" (On The Origin Of The Home Of COVID-19, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14).

For example:
"To meet this demand [commercialization / population growth], there are several approaches being in force like antibiotic / antimicrobial / hormonal growth promotors. But these methods also lead to major public health concerns ranging from residues to antimicrobial resistance in human population ... It is a well-known fact that microbiota plays a pivotal role in the gastrointestinal health in ruminant and nonruminant animals."
...
"For generations, farmers have used antibiotics to improve production of their chicken, pig, and cattle operations. With use of certain antibiotics on the chopping block because of concerns about the rise of resistant organisms, some are turning from anti to pro—probiotics, that is.

Probiotics, live microorganisms that are a staple of the human wellness industry, have the potential to fulfill many of the roles that antibiotics play down on the farm. Research suggests probiotics can help chickens, pigs, and cows quickly put on weight, efficiently digest feed, and withstand the infectious organisms that tend to lurk wherever animals are kept in close quarters ... But farmers have several ways to raise healthy livestock without relying on antibiotics."
(On The Origin Of The Home Of COVID-19). In other words, it is no secret that "the mass-slaughter-of-animals-for-food industry" is a source of "major public health concerns".

Nor is it a secret that "the mass-slaughter-of-animals-for-food industry" exports its products in a multi-billion dollar annual business:
"Tyson Foods, Inc. is an American multinational corporation based in Springdale, Arkansas, that operates in the food industry. The company is the world's second largest processor and marketer of chicken, beef, and pork after JBS S.A. and annually exports the largest percentage of beef out of the United States. Together with its subsidiaries, it operates major food brands, including Jimmy Dean, Hillshire Farm, Ball Park, Wright Brand, Aidells, and State Fair. Tyson Foods ranked No. 80 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue."
...
"'The U.S. food system is a complex network of farmers and the industries that link to them. Those links include makers of farm equipment and chemicals as well as firms that provide services to agribusinesses, such as providers of transportation and financial services. The system also includes the food marketing industries that link farms to consumers, and which include food and fiber processors, wholesalers, retailers, and food service establishments'.

The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs. The food industry today has become highly diversified, with manufacturing ranging from small, traditional, family-run activities that are highly labor intensive, to large, capital-intensive and highly mechanized industrial processes. Many food industries depend almost entirely on local agriculture or fishing."
...
"Rarely found on menus in the U.S., variety meat – also called offal or fancy meat – takes many forms: kidneys, livers, stomachs, tendons, aortas, cheek meat, oxtails and more. And because it's highly sought after in key export markets of Egypt, Japan, Peru and Mexico, variety meat [offal] is gold to the U.S. beef industry.

According to the U.S. Meat Export Federation, total U.S. beef exports in 2012 set a new record at $5.51 billion. Beef offal represented $703.1 million, or about 12% of that. It also accounted for 28.4% of the total volume of beef exports.

And, virtually 100% of the U.S. livestock herd is represented in variety meat exports [offal] – some part of every animal is sold to international customers.

'Demand for both large and small intestines would tank without the international market,' says Jerry Wiggs, export salesman for Greater Omaha Packing Company Inc. (OPC). 'We are selling large intestines to South Korea or Koreans who recently moved to the U.S.'

Wiggs says OPC just recently resumed selling small intestines to Mexico, where they had been banned since BSE was found in the U.S. in late 2003."
...
"Edible offal products, which are made from an animal’s intestines, internal organs, and other parts, rarely end up on American plates. Does that mean it simply goes to waste?

Thanks in large part to international trade, the answer is no. Culinary traditions in countries around the world call for the use offal in a wide variety of dishes ... In many places, certain offal products are even considered a delicacy. By looking beyond America’s borders, meat processors have been able to uncover lucrative markets and reach new consumers hungry for American food products.

Consider the case of Mexico, a country that consistently ranks as one of the leading importers of U.S. offal products, also known as “variety meats”. One of the most popular products is tripe, an offal made from a cow’s stomach."
(On The Origin Of The Home Of COVID-19 - 10). The post also points out that 78% of the food fed to mink on mink farms is offal, so when the talking point that "viruses or microbes can't be spread in food" comes your way don't fall for it.

The US offal export business (which the mink farming business relies on for mink food) has caused major damage to countries it has been exporting to, because that commodity is an element of diet:
"The Netherlands is one of 24 countries where mink farming is still legal. In a historic move, the Dutch parliament has voted to permanently close the mink fur farms shut down by COVID-19.
...
The spread of COVID-19 among mink across multiple farms since April resulted in at least two workers catching the virus from the animals and triggered calls for the government to rapidly shut down the industry. “Waiting until 2024 for the mink ban to take effect would have been unjustifiable and irresponsible,” says Sandra Schoenmakers, director of Dutch anti-fur organizations Bont voor Dieren. The latest available figures show that nearly 600,000 mink across 13 farms had been killed by gassing with carbon monoxide on the orders of the Dutch government, but many more are likely to be killed in the coming weeks.

Factory farms and slaughterhouses across the world have become coronavirus hotbeds due to cramped and unsafe working conditions, endangering the lives of workers who have been given inadequate protection by the companies that employ them. While transmission between workers on the Dutch mink farms has not reached the levels seen on agricultural farms, it presents the first case in which humans passed the virus to the farmed animals who then transmitted it back to humans.
...
The intensive breeding of animals on fur farms is an incredibly cruel practice that not only causes immense suffering to animals, but can also serve as a reservoir for coronaviruses
".
(On The Origin Of The Home Of COVID-19 - 12). Yes, diet is important, and yes microbes can be passed to those who consume food with microbes in it:
"Editorial Summary

Minor role for host genetics in shaping the microbiota

The composition of the human gut microbiome is determined by many factors. Eran Segal and colleagues performed an extensive statistical analysis of the largest metagenomics-sequenced human cohort so far to determine the contribution of host genotype to microbiome composition. Host genetics has only a minor influence on microbiome variability, which is more strongly associated with environmental factors such as diet. The authors propose a 'microbiome-association index' that describes the association of the microbiome with host phenotype. Combining this measurement with host genetic and environmental data improves the accuracy of predictions about several human metabolic traits, such as glucose and obesity traits."
...
"A wealth of evidence suggests that this incredibly diverse microbial community is regulated by host genetic factors, and more importantly, environmental and dietary factors (4–6)"."
...
"Human gut microbiome composition is shaped by multiple factors but the relative contribution of host genetics remains elusive. Here we examine genotype and microbiome data from 1,046 healthy individuals with several distinct ancestral origins who share a relatively common environment, and demonstrate that the gut microbiome is not significantly associated with genetic ancestry, and that host genetics have a minor role in determining microbiome composition. We show that, by contrast, there are significant similarities in the compositions of the microbiomes of genetically unrelated individuals who share a household, and that over 20% of the inter-person microbiome variability is associated with factors related to diet, drugs and anthropometric measurements. We further demonstrate that microbiome data significantly improve the prediction accuracy for many human traits, such as glucose and obesity measures, compared to models that use only host genetic and environmental data. These results suggest that microbiome alterations aimed at improving clinical outcomes may be carried out across diverse genetic backgrounds."
(ibid). Exported food and food distributed in country by "the mass-slaughter-of-animals-for-food industry" has been a danger to public health for who knows how long.

Here is a preliminary list of countries that "the mass-slaughter-of-animals-for-food industry" exports its products to:

About Columns in the HTML table below:

'Country' is a list of 249 nations
'Abbr' is the abbreviation of that country used in .gov reports
'Gets USA exports?' indicates whether or not the USDA indicates US exports go to that country
'Were SARS-CoV-2 samples taken?' indicates whether or not medical tests give evidence of SARS-CoV-2 in that country yet (and stored in GenBank)
'GenBank Count' means how many SARS-CoV-2 records (genomic per country) I found in GenBank (example record)

Note: an asterisk (*) in the columns below indicates that the 'no' on exports is a USA location in the eyes of USDA, so by definition (a country can't "export" to itself) there can be no exports (the meat, offal, eggs are used "in country").



USDA Export Report (meat, offal, eggs) and
sample counts of virus (SARS-Cov-2) DNA/RNA
taken in those countries as follows:
Country Abbr Gets USA
exports?
Were SARS-CoV-2
samples taken?
GenBank
Count
Afghanistan AFG yes no 0
Aland ALA yes yes 1
Albania ALB yes yes 2
Algeria DZA yes no 0
American Samoa ASM no yes 1
Andorra AND yes yes 4,159
Angola AGO yes yes 1
Anguilla AIA yes yes 1
Antarctica ATA no yes 12
Antigua and Barbuda ATG no yes 1
Argentina ARG yes yes 16
Armenia ARM yes yes 6
Aruba ABW yes no 0
Australia AUS yes yes 1,420
Austria AUT yes yes 5
Azerbaijan AZE yes no 0
Bahamas BHS yes yes 1
Bahrain BHR yes yes 10
Bangladesh BGD yes yes 231
Barbados BRB yes no 0
Belarus BLR yes no 0
Belgium BEL yes yes 3
Belize BLZ yes yes 4
Benin BEN yes yes 2
Bermuda BMU yes no 0
Bhutan BTN no yes 2
Bolivia BOL yes no 0
Saba BQ no yes 9
Bosnia and Herzegovina BIH no no 0
Botswana BWA yes no 0
Bouvet BVT no no 0
Brazil BRA yes yes 16
British Indian Ocean
Territory
IOT yes no 0
Brunei BN yes yes 11
Bulgaria BGR yes yes 3
Burkina Faso BFA yes yes 3
Burundi BDI yes no 0
Verde CPV yes no 0
Cambodia KHM yes no 0
Cameroon CMR yes yes 5
Canada CAN yes yes 4
Cayman CYM yes no 0
Central African
Republic
CAF yes no 0
Chad TCD yes no 0
Chile CHL yes yes 11
China CHN yes yes 611
Christmas CXR yes no 0
Cocos (Keeling) CCK yes no 0
Colombia COL yes yes 2
Comoros COM yes yes 25,960
Congo COD yes yes 5
Republic of the Congo 178 yes yes 108
Cook COK yes yes 10
Costa Rica CRI yes yes 2
Ivory Coast CIV yes yes 5
Croatia HRV yes no 0
Cuba CUB yes yes 2
Curaçao CUW yes no 0
Cyprus CYP yes no 0
Czech CZE yes yes 23
Denmark DNK yes yes 8
Djibouti DJI yes no 0
Dominica DMA yes no 0
Dominican DOM yes yes 96
Ecuador ECU yes yes 61
Egypt EGY yes yes 101
El Salvador SLV yes no 0
Guinea GNQ yes yes 1
Eritrea ERI yes yes 353
Estonia EST yes yes 270
Eswatini SWZ no no 0
Ethiopia ETH yes yes 152
Falkland FLK yes no 0
Faroe FRO yes yes 97
Fiji FJI yes no 0
Finland FIN yes yes 1
France FRA yes yes 87
French Guiana GUF yes no 0
French Polynesia PYF yes no 0
French Southern and
Antarctic Lands
ATF no no 0
Gabon GAB yes no 0
Gambia GMB yes yes 1
Georgia GEO yes yes 11
Germany DEU yes yes 87
Ghana GHA yes yes 46
Gibraltar GIB yes no 0
Greece GRC yes yes 98
Greenland GRL yes no 0
Grenada GRD yes no 0
Guadeloupe GLP yes no 0
Guam GUM no yes 3
Guatemala GTM yes yes 10
Guernsey GGY no no 0
Guinea GIN yes yes 11
Guinea-Bissau GNB yes no 0
Guyana GUY yes no 0
Haiti HTI yes yes 8
Heard Island and McDonald
Islands
HMD no no 0
Holy See VAT no yes 2
Honduras HND yes no 0
Hong Kong HKG yes yes 132
Hungary HUN yes yes 7
Iceland ISL yes yes 5
India IND yes yes 467
Indonesia IDN yes no 0
Iran IRN yes yes 79
Iraq IRQ yes yes 10
Ireland IRL yes yes 1
Isle of Man IMN no no 0
Israel ISR yes yes 2
Italy ITA yes yes 45
Jamaica JAM yes yes 8
Japan JPN yes yes 90
Jersey JEY no yes 3
Jordan JOR yes yes 27
Kazakhstan KAZ yes yes 4
Kenya KEN yes yes 3
Kiribati KIR yes no 0
North Korea PRK yes no 0
South Korea KOR yes yes 6
Kuwait KWT yes no 0
Kyrgyzstan KGZ yes no 0
Laos LAO yes yes 1
Latvia LVA yes no 0
Lebanon LBN yes yes 4
Lesotho LSO yes no 0
Liberia LBR yes no 0
Libya LBY yes no 0
Liechtenstein LIE yes yes 1
Lithuania LTU yes no 0
Luxembourg LUX yes yes 2
Macao MAC yes yes 55
Macedonia MKD yes no 0
Madagascar MDG yes no 0
Malawi MWI yes no 0
Malaysia MYS yes yes 7
Maldives MDV yes no 0
Mali MLI yes no 0
Malta MLT yes no 0
Marshall Islands MHL yes no 0
Martinique MTQ yes no 0
Mauritania MRT yes no 0
Mauritius MUS yes yes 99
Mayotte MYT yes no 0
Mexico MEX yes yes 66
Micronesia FSM yes no 0
Moldova MDA yes no 0
Monaco MCO yes no 0
Mongolia MNG yes no 0
Montenegro MNE yes no 0
Montserrat MSR yes no 0
Morocco MAR yes yes 10
Mozambique MOZ yes no 0
Myanmar MMR yes no 0
Namibia NAM yes yes 164
Nauru NRU yes no 0
Nepal NPL yes yes 1
Netherlands NLD yes yes 16
New Caledonia NCL yes no 0
New Zealand NZL yes yes 1
Nicaragua NIC yes yes 43
Niger NER yes yes 3
Nigeria NGA yes yes 3
Niue NIU yes no 0
Norfolk Island NFK yes no 0
Northern Mariana
Islands
MNP no no 0
Norway NOR yes yes 23
Oman OMN yes yes 12
Pakistan PAK yes yes 6
Palau PLW yes no 0
Palestine PS no yes 4,292
Panama PAN yes yes 295
Papua New Guinea PNG yes no 0
Paraguay PRY yes yes 3
Peru PER yes yes 1
Philippines PHL yes yes 4
Pitcairn TPC yes yes 3
Poland POL yes yes 31
Portugal PRT yes no 0
Puerto Rico* PRI no* yes 13
Qatar QAT yes yes 7
Réunion REU yes no 0
Romania ROU yes yes 41
Russia RUS yes yes 13
Rwanda RWA no no 0
Saint Barthélemy BLM no no 0
Tristan da Cunha SH no yes 134
Saint Kitts and Nevis KNA no no 0
Saint Lucia LCA yes yes 4
Saint Martin MAF no no 0
Saint Pierre and
Miquelon
SPM no no 0
Saint Vincent and
the Grenadines
VCT no no 0
Samoa WSM yes no 0
San Marino SMR yes no 0
São Tomé and
Príncipe
STP yes yes 1
Saudi Arabia SAU yes yes 58
Senegal SEN yes yes 3
Serbia SRB yes yes 18
Seychelles SYC yes yes 3
Sierra Leone SLE yes yes 11
Singapore SGP yes yes 24
Sint Maarten SXM yes no 0
Slovakia SVK yes no 0
Slovenia SVN yes yes 3
Solomon Islands SLB yes no 0
Somalia SOM yes yes 4
South Africa ZAF yes yes 1
South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands
SGS no no 0
South Sudan SSD no yes 2
Spain ESP yes yes 37
Sri Lanka LKA yes yes 4
Sudan SDN yes yes 1
Suriname SUR yes yes 288
Jan Mayen SJM yes no 0
Sweden SWE yes yes 1
Switzerland CHE yes yes 32
Syria SYR yes no 0
Taiwan TWN yes yes 44
Tajikistan TJK yes no 0
Tanzania TZ yes yes 4
Thailand THA yes yes 227
East Timor TLS yes yes 32
Togo TGO yes no 0
Tokelau TKL yes no 0
Tonga TON yes yes 20
Trinidad and Tobago TTO yes no 0
Tunisia TUN yes yes 14
Turkey TUR yes yes 56
Turkmenistan TKM yes no 0
Turks and Caicos
Islands
TCA yes no 0
Tuvalu TUV yes no 0
Uganda UGA yes yes 8
Ukraine UKR yes yes 3
United Arab Emirates ARE yes yes 195
United Kingdom UK yes yes 4
United States Minor
Outlying Islands*
UMI no* yes 3
United States* USA no* yes 23,676
Uruguay URY yes yes 1
Uzbekistan UZB yes yes 2
Vanuatu VUT yes no 0
Venezuela VEN yes yes 7
Vietnam VNM yes yes 16
British Virgin Islands VGB yes no 0
United States Virgin
Islands*
VIR no* yes 26,196
Wallis and Futuna WLF yes no 0
Western Sahara ESH yes yes 4
Yemen YEM yes no 0
Zambia ZMB yes yes 1
Zimbabwe ZWE yes yes 1


The next post in this series is here, the previous post in this series is here.