Saturday, October 27, 2018

The King of King Tides Approaches - 3

King of Tides (Oil-Qaeda)
In this series the "King Tide" myth was exposed, but few got it.

The good news is that some did get the high tide of lies message.

In the first post of this series I pointed out that "king tide" was just another myth paid for by Oil-Qaeda to deceive the public through media outlets (the ones where they spend big bucks on advertising).

All the woke people are well aware of that, but those who sleep on it continue to dream about it in dreams that will become nightmares that cannot be slept off, nightmares that spread well beyond their disbelief:
Media operatives continue to "soften" the reality of the SLR danger that civilization is facing, and will continue to face, whether it wants to face it or not.

Focusing on a "flood" event, using "king tide" to describe that event, is dishonest when we know that the area did not flood at king tides of the past ...
(The King of King Tides Approaches). One or so of the media has or have become a woke media operative or operatives:
"The so-called 'king tides,' though, are a new menace, only going back about a decade.
...
Such flooding was rare a decade ago. Now it is a near certainty, at least a few times each fall ― the result, oceanographers and atmospheric scientists believe, of sea level rise caused by a warming climate."
(Climate Change Flooding Is Now, emphasis added). And we haven't seen anything yet (Greenland & Antarctica Invade The United States, 2, 3, 4, Why Sea Level Rise May Be The Greatest Threat To Civilization, 2, 3, 4, 5).

The main source of sea level rise now is in the Southern Ocean (Antarctica 2.0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 [& supplements A, B, C, D, E, F], Mysterious Zones of Antarctica, 2, 3, 4).

I have tried to detail how what-is-happening was missed, was not detected (Hot, Warm, & Cold Thermal Facts: Tidewater-Glaciers, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).

Here is some more reading material for your perusal:
Southern Ocean Warming

Zonal Variations in the Southern Ocean Heat Budget

Opening the window to the Southern Ocean

Disrupting the deep: Ocean warming reaches the abyss
The previous post in this series is here.

A song about Donuh Dump's recent political deceit caravan that went down to King Red, a tide down in Florida:



Thursday, October 25, 2018

Hot, Warm, & Cold Thermal Facts: Tidewater-Glaciers - 7

Fig. 1 Speed bumps
I. Enthalpy

Let's talk about glacial melt rates impacted by "enthalpy".

I want to present a hypothesis of speed changes during the melting of tidewater glaciers like Totten in East Antarctica (Fig. 1).

The speed changes take place during the trip from position "D" (grounding line) to position "A" (far inland from position "D") caused by pressure / depth changes in "heat energy" (specific enthalpy) as discussed in a previous Dredd Blog post (see On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 39).

The basic hypothesis, all things being the same, is that enthalpy increases the speed of
Fig. 2a
Fig. 2b
melt on downhill slopes (e.g. from position "D" to position "C") but decreases speed from position "C" to position "B".

The graphs at Fig. 2a and Fig. 2b show how J / kg (Joules per kilogram) increases as depth (and therefore pressure) increases.

The graph at Fig. 3 shows equivalent visible light (e = 6 x 10-7 J per photon) energy in the specific enthalpy.

When the grounding line moves from position "D" to position "C" the pressure increases as the depth below sea level increases (Fig. 1).

The inverse is also true, as depth and pressure decrease, so does the "heat energy" (J / kg).

So, per the hypothesis the depth and pressure decrease as the grounding line moves from point "C to point "B" and then on up to point "A", thus the speed of melt will likewise decrease.

II. Unknowns

How much speed change will take place is not really knowable, except when all other factors have been quantified, which is not that easy to do:
"Rapid retreat of tidewater glaciers can be initiated when the front is perturbed from a preferred pinning point, particularly when the glacier sits in an overdeepened trough. This is believed to make certain areas of ice sheets particularly vulnerable to ice loss. A number of factors may cause a previously stable front position to become unstable, including changes in buttressing provided by an ice shelf, and changes in ocean temperature."
(Hydrologically-induced slow-down, emphasis added). The test would be to determine all factors just prior to the grounding line going over the top of a ridge and beginning the descent into the valley.

Fig. 3 Equivalent visible light photon energy
The graphs show that temperature of the water and salinity of the water are minor players compared to pressure.

The graphs show: 1) a fixed value flow, 2) increasing salinity with depth,  and 3) a temperature increase with depth.

The no-changes line in Fig. 2a (black line) is for the most part imperceptible because it has almost the same set of values as the salinity (green line).

The notable issue is that the temperature line in both graphs is more significant than the salinity line.

That means that temperature is second in importance, but the prime factor is pressure / depth.

III. Conclusion

Assume a case, then, where neither the temperature nor the salinity change during the melting from point "D" to point "C", that is, only the pressure changes (it increases).

That means more melt energy is projected against the subsurface ice face of the glacier because enthalpy increases, so melt increases.

But, as the grounding line passes point "C" and heads uphill to point "B" the pressure drops because the depth / pressure is decreasing.

This continues all the way up to point "A".

The consideration of enthalpy may help determine the retreat time line of tidewater glaciers.

The previous post in this series is here.

Monday, October 22, 2018

On The Origin of Tyranny

Children of Despotic Minorities
I. The Foreward

The meaning of "origin" is "the beginning or cause of something" (Cambridge Dictionary, cf Oxford).

Obviously, then, tyranny emerges originally in a nation or civilization that does not yet nor ever did have it.

That is, tyranny does not originally emerge for the first time from itself, so logically it must emerge in a non-tyrannical womb ("the place where something originates and develops").

So, what type of environment, nation, or civilization does tyranny emerge in?

The only answer I can come up with, after reading The Origin of Tyranny (PDF), is:
any environment, nation, or civilization where tyranny does not yet exist.
Thus, the short answer is that tyranny must emerge in an environment, nation, or civilization that is not already tyrannical (e.g. in a democracy).

It would seem, then, that the most vulnerable to it are those environments, nations, or civilizations with the "It can't happen here" mindset (LieGate).

II. The Current Situation

Another historian (besides the one that wrote "The Origin of Tyranny") studied the situation at length in terms of the womb of tyranny, focusing on the tyranny that brought environments, nations, or civilizations down:
"In the Study Toynbee examined the rise and fall of 26 civilizations in the course of human history, and he concluded that they rose by responding successfully to challenges under the leadership of creative minorities composed of elite leaders. Civilizations declined when their leaders stopped responding creatively, and the civilizations then sank owing to the sins of nationalism, militarism, and the tyranny of a despotic minority. Unlike Spengler in his The Decline of the West, Toynbee did not regard the death of a civilization as inevitable, for it may or may not continue to respond to successive challenges. Unlike Karl Marx, he saw history as shaped by spiritual, not economic forces" ...
(How To Identify The Despotic Minority). In that post I wrote about the womb of tyranny, which is "a despotic minority", but I did not talk at length about the nature of their tyranny itself.

That is because to historians the tyranny itself is naturally associated with the particular characteristics of the particular minority which has become despotic at a given time in history.

It is up to us, then, to identify the characteristics of the particular tyranny of the despotic minority that has or could arise in our country in our lifetime.

The book The Origin of Tyranny, which I mentioned and linked to in Section I above, identifies many possible minorities.

It can be a wealthy minority (e.g. The Homeland: Big Brother Plutonomy, 2, 3, 4, 8), a disenfranchised minority of most any sort (e.g. Storm The Bastille), or a military minority (e.g. Will The Military Become The Police?, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11).

III. The Tyranny

Remember that the tyranny we are analyzing is "the tyranny of a despotic minority."

So, let's begin with "despotic", which stems from "despot", which is:
"a person, especially a ruler, who has unlimited power over other people, and often uses it unfairly and cruelly"
(Cambridge Dictionary).  Dictionaries tell us that "tyranny" is:
"unlimited authority or use of power, or a government which exercises such power without any control or limits" (Cambridge Dictionary)

"oppressive power exerted by government" (Merriam Webster)

"A tyranny is a cruel, harsh, and unfair government in which a person or small group of people have power over everyone else. " (Collins)
A despotic ruler is a minority of one, but the power actually originates in a minority group of people supporting the ruling despot.

There is a lot of enlightenment on the psychology of both the ruler and the followers in a book entitled "The Authoritarians" (How To Identify The Despotic Minority - 3).

IV. The Etiology

The way a despotic minority evolves depends on the culture, however, much of the particular dynamics are universally understandable (Etiology of Social Dementia - 5).

V. The Conclusion

The bottom line is that both the tyranny and the despot are defined by the characteristics of the minority that has become despotic.

That "minority" can be millions of people, can be multiracial, one race, multicultural, one culture, etc. (e.g. election, 2016).

However, the one required characteristic is that such a minority must be despotic.

Finally, the one thing which that despotic minority must espouse is tyranny.





Sunday, October 21, 2018

On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 39

Fig. 1 Water terminating glacier
I. Foreward

Non-intuitive situations in scientific research can cause communication problems (e.g. The Gravity of Sea Level Change) .

One example is when one is trying to communicate the answer to the question: "Why does the TEOS-10 function gsw_enthalpy_t_exact indicate that there is more "heat" in deep ocean water than there is in shallow ocean water, even when they are both at the same temperature?"

II. The Area of Concern

I modified a graphic (Fig. 1) of a tidewater glacier terminus in order to focus on the ocean depth at which the subsurface "face" of such glaciers begin and end.
Fig. 2 Area A (W. Indian Ocean)

In this case the "face" is the glacial ice from the top of the glacier to the glacier's grounding line below sea level.

For example, the face of Totten Glacier in Antarctica (WOD Zone 3611) reaches 2,500 meters below sea level (from grounding line up to sea level is ~2500m).

Fig. 3 Area B (E. Indian Ocean)
With less of a face, Thwaites Glacier in Antarctica (WOD Zone 5710) is nicknamed "the Doomsday Glacier".

I am providing graphs of the Antarctic areas of those two zones.

They are graphs that detail the specific enthalpy of those areas.

Today's graph that features Thwaites Glacier's specific enthalpy is at Fig. 6, and the graph that features Totten Glacier's specific enthalpy is at Fig. 3.

There are many other glaciers in those graphed areas.

I am mentioning Thwaites and Totten because they represent enough sea level rise to destroy our current global sea-trade-based civilization (The Extinction of Robust Sea Ports - 10).

III. Enthalpy or Specific Enthalpy? 

These entities (enthalpy and specific enthalpy) are described in various and sundry ways:
Simple English view

A chemistry view

The definition of enthalpy Encyclopedia Britannica.

Enthalpy reflects "the capacity to release heat." (Quora).
But, since I use the TEOS-10 toolkit for my seawater thermodynamic computations, that is where I focus my efforts.

One of the TEOS-10 documents states: "The specific enthalpy is therefore a measure of the heat content of the system" (TEOS-10 Primer, p. 8, emphasis added).

That there is "specific enthalpy" as well as "enthalpy" necessitates some clarification:
Fig. 4 Area C (Ross Sea)
"[formula for enthalpy:] "H = U + pV, where H is the enthalpy of the system, U is the internal energy of the system, p is the pressure of the system, V is the volume of the system.
...
[formula for specific enthalpy:] h = u + pv, where u is the specific internal energy, p is the pressure, and v is specific volume."
(Wikipedia, emphasis added). Ok, but are capital letters vs lower case letters the only difference?

Either way, since "p is the pressure", it is easy to see that both enthalpy and specific enthalpy tend to encapsulate a quantity increase (J / kg) as the ocean depth (and therefore pressure) increases.

But, is that the gravamen, the essential matter of the situation?

No, because once again "mass unit" comes to the forefront:
"A common practice in sea level research is to analyze separately the variability
Fig. 5 Area D (Amundsen Sea)
 of the steric and mass components of sea level. However, there are conceptual and practical issues that have sometimes been misinterpreted, leading to erroneous and contradictory conclusions on regional sea level variability. The crucial point to be noted is that the steric component does not account for volume changes but does for volume changes per mass unit (i.e., density changes). This indicates that the steric component only represents actual volume changes when the mass of the considered water body remains constant.
"
(On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 38). And this factor dovetails quite well with the "specific enthalpy" vs "enthalpy" consideration:
"Specific Enthalpy is the total energy in a system due to pressure and temperature per unit of mass in that system. Specific enthalpy is used in thermodynamic equations when one wants to know the energy for a given single unit mass of a substance. The SI units for specific enthalpy are kJ/kg (kilojoules per kilogram).

Specific enthalpy is calculated by taking the total enthalpy of the system
Fig. 6 Area E (Bellingshausen Sea)
and dividing it by the total mass of the system. It is written mathematically as:


h = H/m

where h is the specific enthalpy, H is the enthalpy of the system, and m is the total mass of the system. Specific enthalpy can also be written in terms of specific energy, pressure, and specific volume such that the following equation is true:

h = u + pv

where u is the specific energy, p is the pressure and v is the volume. This is to be seen as the specific enthalpy version of, and not to be confused with, the enthalpy equation:

H = U + pV

where H is the total enthalpy, U is the energy of the work done in the system, p is pressure, and V is the volume of the system."
(Calcularor Org). It is fundamental that the mass unit (in this case a zone bounded by latitude and longitude lines at various depth slices ... e.g. 10-20m) be identified and quantified prior to doing thermal expansion or specific enthalpy calculations.

IV. What About The Graphs?

As we peruse today's graphs, note that they not only concern the context of specific enthalpy, they also concern the context of thermosteric sea level change (a.k.a. thermal expansion / contraction).

Fig. 7 Area F (Weddell Sea)
Notice that the graphs are the exact opposite of what is hypothesized in the "thermal expansion is the greatest cause of sea level rise in the 20th century" myth.

The deepest waters, way down far away from warming sunlight and the global warming induced greenhouse effect at the ocean's surface, is where specific enthalpy ("a measure of the heat content of the system") is strongest (Fig. 2 - Fig. 7).

In other words, all things being the same, the deeper water is where the "heat" is most abundant in terms of Joules per kilogram (J / kg).

The depths and names of depth layers are explained here.

V. Conclusion

The main cause of that non-intuitive factor is the pressure at deep depths, where the glacial ice-face is most vulnerable to Antarctic current driven warming.

It takes just a little warming down there to cause a lot of melt water to flow upwards in a plume (Frontal processes on tidewater glaciers).

Other Conservative Temperature graphs indicate that, in places, those deep waters have warmed about a degree Celsius, like the Earth's atmosphere way above those waters has (GISS).

The previous post in this series is here.