Thursday, May 14, 2020

On The Origin Of The Home Of COVID-19

And Now For Some Breaking News
I. Deja Voodoo All Over Again

This post begins a new Dredd Blog series based upon what I suspect is "the industry" response to two previous Dredd Blog posts (On The Origin of the Genes of Viruses - 14, If Cosmology Is "Off," How Can Biology Be "On?" - 2).

The industry response which I suspect is: Why it’s wrong to blame livestock farms for coronavirus.

This is not the first time that "the industry" (MOMCOM) has responded to Dredd Blog posts (Oil-Qaeda & MOMCOM Conspire To Commit Depraved-Heart Murder- 6).

No, not the first time, but it is the same type of response.

The "type of response" I am writing about is diversion and deceit, without any discussion of the gravamen of the situation.

The gravamen of the situation is, in our modern time, where did Covid-19 originate?

I already have written about the general origin of viruses and their genes (On the Origin of the Genes of Viruses, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13; The Uncertain Gene, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11).

This series will be about this specific type of virus, not the general population of viruses.

In this series I will keep in mind that there are far more viruses than there are stars in the visible universe (The Real Dangers With Microbes & Viruses).

So, we have now narrowed the search for an origin, limiting it to a search for the home (host) of the Covid-19 virus (like the title of this series indicates).

II. My Complaint

The venerable American Society for Microbiology (ASM),  an esteemed realm of cognition, expects a lot from our youth.

I say that because the following is what they expect "K-4" (kindergarten thru fourth grade) to contemplate:
"This lesson introduces students to the microbial world and provides insight on the function of microbes by examining bacteria that both help and harm cows. Although multiple bacteria inhabit the cow’s rumen, this lesson focuses on two harmless microbes, Ruminococcus and Selenomonas, which break down cellulose and starch in plant matter, respectively. These bacteria obtain nutrients from the cow’s diet, and the cow gains energy from the products of bacterial metabolism. Therefore, these bacterial species are in a symbiotic relationship with the cow. Other bacterial species can harm cows. Such is the case with Escherichia coli, a non-ruminant bacterium that can cause the udder infection known as mastitis."
(Lesson Plan, Grades K-4, Bacteria That Help and Hurt Cows, emphasis added). I suspect that Dredd Blog readers did not get that lesson presented to them during their K-4 elementary schooling (I certainly didn't).

It doesn't stop there:
"The microbes inhabiting the rumen convert low-quality, fibrous, plant material into useable energy for the host ruminant. Consisting of bacteria, protozoa, fungi, archaea, and viruses, the rumen microbiome composes a sophisticated network of symbiosis essential to maintenance, immune function, and over-all production efficiency of the host ruminant."
(Rumen Microbes In Livestock Production, emphasis added). For those, like me, that did not get tested on "rumen" in grades K-4:  (Medical Definition of rumen : the large first compartment of the stomach of a ruminant from which food is regurgitated for rumination and in which cellulose is broken down by the action of symbiotic microorganisms.)

Anyway, what could go wrong in the rumen? ... good question ... good answer:
"To meet this demand [commercialization / population growth], there are several approaches being in force like antibiotic / antimicrobial / hormonal growth promotors. But these methods also lead to major public health concerns ranging from residues to antimicrobial resistance in human population ... It is a well-known fact that microbiota plays a pivotal role in the gastrointestinal health in ruminant and nonruminant animals."
(Effective Role of Microorganisms in Livestock Development, emphasis added). What could go wrong and has gone wrong is answered by a look at pandemics (The Real Dangers With Microbes & Viruses).

Some of those in "the industry" have found out what could go wrong and has gone wrong:
"For generations, farmers have used antibiotics to improve production of their chicken, pig, and cattle operations. With use of certain antibiotics on the chopping block because of concerns about the rise of resistant organisms, some are turning from anti to pro—probiotics, that is.

Probiotics, live microorganisms that are a staple of the human wellness industry, have the potential to fulfill many of the roles that antibiotics play down on the farm. Research suggests probiotics can help chickens, pigs, and cows quickly put on weight, efficiently digest feed, and withstand the infectious organisms that tend to lurk wherever animals are kept in close quarters ... But farmers have several ways to raise healthy livestock without relying on antibiotics."
(Boosting Farm Animal Health, emphasis added). Why would there be a change after generations of use ... "major public health concerns" ... pandemics?

III. The Accusations

In the accusations set forth in "Why it’s wrong to blame livestock farms for coronavirus" linked to in Section I above, the author of that paper did not mention that she is of the Mansanto persuasion:
"Alison Van Eenennaam, PhD, a cooperative extension specialist in animal genomics and biotechnology at the University of California, Davis, is a leading promoter of genetically engineered animals, crops and the pesticides that accompany them, and an advocate for deregulation. Dr. Van Eenennaam argues GE animals should not be subject to pre-market safety reviews or labels. Dr. Van Eenennaam is a former Monsanto employee [(Wayback Machine Doc)] who opposes requiring safety studies for genetically engineered animals ..."
(USRTK US Right To Know, emphasis added). The "Mansanto persuasion" is to kill any and all microbes that move or exist, it is "anti-" not "pro"- biotics (living things).

IV. The Myths

The news media rightly points out:
"Let’s start at the beginning. As of 17 March, we know that the Sars-CoV-2 virus (a member of the coronavirus family that causes the respiratory illness Covid-19) is the product of natural evolution. A study of its genetic sequence, conducted by infectious disease expert Kristian G Andersen of the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California, and colleagues, rules out the possibility that it could have been manufactured in a lab or otherwise engineered. Puff go the conspiracy theories."
(The Covid-19 pandemic shows we must transform the global food system). That is not quite the beginning, but good enough for gummit work.

But, in the next sentences they jump off track:
"The next step is a little less certain, but it seems likely that the original animal reservoir for the virus was bats. Andersen’s team showed – like the Chinese before them –that the sequence of Sars-CoV-2 is similar to other coronaviruses that infect bats."
(ibid).  Non-microscopic biological entities, "animals" (e.g. bats), are not the host of viruses, contrary to ubiquitous media commentaries (Amazon could be next virus hot zone: scientist).

While the host of Covid-19 is evidently not specifically known, the type of 'animal' is known: microbes (the video at the end of this post will tell you a lot about microbes ... watch it all and it will WOW you).

Microbes, as taught in grades K-4 (according to the ASM quote above in Section II) are for the most part mutualists with their host mammals, including humans.

Those microbes host viruses that are mutualists to them, and by extension are mutualists to the animals they are in, 'human animals' too.

A mutualist virus does not "infect" either its immediate host or meta host.

Instead, they are symbionts to both their immediate (microbe) host and meta host (animal).

When the symbiotic relationship is destroyed by antibiotics and other toxins, the host microbe and its reproductive machinery that reproduce the virus as the microbe reproduces itself, are impacted.

The symbiotic relationship is destroyed, and enmity replaces it.

V. Closing Comments

In the next post of this series we will explore the rehabilitation of the enmity relationship back into a symbiotic relationship.

Just below is a repeat of a previous Dredd Blog post that is about seven years old  (How Microbes Communicate In The Tiniest Language) so that you can get in touch with your inner and outer symbionts:

Microbes
Video Index (time - subject)
00:21 - microbes are oldest life forms on Earth
01:03 - 10 times more microbes than human cells in us
01:31 - 100 times more microbial genes than human genes in us
02:00 - microbes are 99% of our make-up; they keep us alive
02:20 - microbes are vital for keeping us alive and healthy
04:20 - microbes talk with a molecular language
07:50 - quorum sensing (like a census) to know population count
08:20 - Intra species communication (shape of words) dialects
10:50 - microbes communicate with other microbes (multi-lingual)
11:20 - they take a census of all other microbes around them
12:30 - synthetic molecules-words interrupt communication
13:50 - synthetic molecules-words confuse the microbes
15:00 - they have collective, community behaviors
15:20 - microbes made the rules for multi-cellular development
16:00 - microbes invented multi-cellular behavior inside us
17:15 - the team

Dr. Bonnie L. Bassler, Princeton University:



Professor who studies "social intelligence" of microbial entities gives lecture:



The next post in this series is here.

Sunday, May 10, 2020

On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 45

Ice Melt Is The Main Cause of Sea Level Change
I. Context

Today, we take a look at actual sea level change (SLC) as measured at hundreds of tide gauge stations around the globe.

With them we can compare the actual in situ measurements taken by instruments at those tide gauge stations located around the world (which have been measuring sea level for hundreds of years in some cases), then analyze the world according to measurements.

In other words, we can then compare those changing values to the actual calculated values for thermal expansion (On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 44), as well as the abstract values for thermal expansion previously presented in this series (On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 43).

The hypothesis being tested today by so doing is "thermal expansion is the main cause of sea level rise".

II. Source of Sea Level Data

The Permanent Service For Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) records sea level in Revised Local Reference (RLR) format.

For ease of use I convert that RLR millimeter format into simple millimeter format.

But, to satisfy our curiosity I present the values of both formats in the HTML file tables, and in the graphs as well.

So, when you select an HTML table or select a graph for any of the ocean areas listed below in the "Links To Appendices" selection table, you can see both formats and compare them as needed.

The basic difference between RLR and SLC is that RLR values are in multiple thousands, while SLC values are way less than one thousand.

The link to the "RLR format" definition mentioned in the first sentence in this section II explains the reasoning for the use of RLR.

III. Appendices

The HTML Table appendices (A1-E1)) are composed of a list of RLR and SLC values for a particular ocean area over a long span of time.

That span of time is as long as 1880-2019, but in some cases measurements have not been recorded for that long because of the harsh conditions in some regions (or because there is no place to put a tide gauge station ... e.g. the middle of the ocean where there is no land to put one on).

The graph appendices (A2-E2) show the mean averages of those sea level measurement values (RLR-millimeter and millimeter) in graph format.

Links To Appendices
Ocean AreaHtml Tables Graphs
AtlanticAppendix A1Appendix A2
PacificAppendix B1Appendix B2
PolarAppendix C1Appendix C2
EquatorialAppendix D1Appendix D2
IndianAppendix E1Appendix E2

IV. What This Is All About

These Dredd Blog series of posts fall into the category of grey/gray literature.

They concern the long-held hypothesis about what causes SLC, and specifically the size of the part thermal expansion/contraction plays in that SLC.

V. Closing Comments

This series is composed of literature which seeks to draw close attention to the aforesaid hypothesis that "thermal expansion is the main cause of sea level rise".

In this series I have argued that the said hypothesis has been falsified, and no one has responded with any evidence, especially evidence of equal quantity or quality.

Here are the totals for your perusal (NOTE: the 'Total' of the 11 oceans (~5.5 ft,~1690 mm on the last line of the table) is not actual, visual results because the SLC levels out to about the average as the oceans flow together):

Thermosteric tsSLC vs Actual SLC Graphs

Ocean WOD tsSLC (mm) SLC (mm) in situ tsSLC (mm)
North Atlantic 1.69869258.4564.52489
Equatorial Atlantic 2.3308670.430.840493
South Atlantic 1.895548.43111.2491
North Pacific 1.72838130.5643.06685
Equatorial Pacific 2.32835115.1186.4686
South Pacific 1.91171144.1325.02795
North Indian 2.22555-51.5450.563049
Equatorial Indian 2.33282144.0098.16361
South Indian 1.97321468.9546.30896
Southern 0.87936776.95671.98366
Arctic 0.609101377.0290.487493
Average (11 oceans) 1.81032153.6203.51679
Total (11 oceans) 19.91351689.82738.6847

The three right-most columns in the "Thermosteric tsSLC vs Actual SLC Graphs" table compare the results from post 43 ("WOD tsSLC"), this current post 45 ("SLC mm"), and  post 44 ("in situ tsSlc") so as to give a quick look at the contrasts.

The "WOD tsSlc" values were computed using the maximum and mininum values for temperature and salinity presented in the WOD manual as explained in On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 43.

The "SLC" values in the middle column are tide gauge station measurements of actual sea levels over time (no temperature and salinity values involved).

The "in situ tsSLC" values were computed using actual temperature and salinity measurements as explained in On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 44.

Either way you look at it, the thermal expansion values are not the main cause of sea level rise.

The previous post in this series is here.

Atlantic Appendix A1

This is an appendix to: On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 45

Ocean: North Atlantic
WOD Zones:
7606 7605 7604 7603 7602 7601 7600 7506 7505 7504 7503 7502 7501 7500 7407
7406 7405 7404 7403 7402 7401 7400 7309 7308 7307 7306 7305 7304 7303 7302
7301 7300 7209 7208 7207 7206 7205 7204 7203 7202 7201 7200 7108 7107 7106
7105 7104 7103 7102 7101 1600 1601 1500

World Ocean Database Zones



LEGEND for the HTML table below:

Year column: the year when in situ tide gauge measurements were taken.

RLR (mm) column: the average RLR value of the PSMSL database values for all
WOD zones (listed above) and tide gauge stations in those zones (for a particular year).

SLC (mm) column: the sea level change value derived by recording the first
RLR value of the first year, then subtracting it from every subsequent year's RLR value
(including itself to derive 0 for the first year's SLC mm value).



Year RLR (mm)SLC (mm)
18806836.380
18816799.48-36.8918
18826818.61-17.7613
18836811.78-24.5908
18846814.6-21.7708
18856841.515.13224
18866828.22-8.15688
18876816.78-19.5955
18886803.39-32.9869
18896832.72-3.65233
18906845.248.86705
18916847.5211.1439
18926890.1953.8193
18936913.1176.735
18946899.1162.7375
18956881.2644.8809
18966889.4553.0787
18976911.9875.6058
18986976.49140.118
18996990.38154.009
19006937.78101.409
19016901.8165.4303
19026943.4107.02
19036995.7159.322
19046934.8698.4857
19056926.3990.0153
19066939.38103.002
19076920.1383.7499
19086907.6371.2519
19096942.47106.097
19106945.33108.955
19116926.9490.5685
19126947.02110.649
19136931.1694.7816
19146918.0581.6735
19156892.5456.1638
19166957.45121.077
19176941.37104.99
19186938.22101.843
19196947.56111.187
19206917.3580.9761
19216930.5194.1339
19226928.291.8285
19236939.1102.726
19246931.4795.0986
19256937.75101.374
19266932.1195.7392
19276949.48113.103
19286968.11131.732
19296941.27104.89
19306940.11103.739
19316914.7178.3311
19326944.81108.439
19336922.6886.3047
19346896.0759.6897
19356924.7588.3766
19366943.28106.905
19376943.8107.421
19386961.56125.187
19396948.61112.234
19406939.98103.607
19416915.5279.1442
19426945.08108.7
19436978.21141.836
19446950.29113.917
19456980.78144.4
19466974.3137.928
19476983.99147.616
19486992.76156.384
19496974.34137.965
19506965.69129.313
19516980.53144.154
19526985.28148.904
19536975.67139.29
19546975.24138.861
19556984.98148.606
19566962.8126.421
19576979.6143.224
19586986.25149.879
19596964.71128.332
19606991.21154.83
19617004.58168.205
19626965.18128.804
19636951.44115.063
19646946.97110.597
19656964.13127.756
19666988.12151.745
19677006.07169.698
19686982.6146.221
19697004.3167.925
19706999.63163.258
19716992.11155.731
19727015.2178.829
19737020.78184.407
19747014.17177.79
19757006.3169.929
19766987.12150.743
19776997.44161.064
19786998.1161.725
19796997.17160.796
19806983.91147.536
19817006.74170.361
19826999.44163.069
19837044.5208.122
19847014.83178.451
19857015.5179.123
19867018.5182.124
19877015.78179.409
19887016.92180.544
19897014.74178.363
19907030.49194.114
19917016.55180.178
19927018.55182.179
19937022.39186.012
19947022.07185.697
19957028.94192.565
19967021.97185.591
19977048.28211.902
19987054.49218.113
19997034.4198.026
20007030.31193.931
20017018.9182.526
20027040.41204.037
20037039.47203.092
20047039.68203.307
20057045.44209.066
20067053.56217.188
20077042.89206.518
20087057.28220.908
20097061.94225.567
20107062.81226.431
20117064.5228.125
20127053.72217.343
20137058.44222.068
20147079.26242.885
20157070.09233.716
20167087.1250.725
20177098.51262.138
20187094.83258.456
20197165.43329.057


Ocean: South Atlantic
WOD Zones:
5103 5102 5101 5100 3100 3101 5205 5204 5203 5202 5201 5200 3200 3201 5306
5305 5304 5303 5302 5301 5300 3300 3301 3302 5406 5405 5404 5403 5402 5401
5400 3400 3401 3402


LEGEND for the HTML table below:

Year column: the year when in situ tide gauge measurements were taken.

RLR (mm) column: the average RLR value of the PSMSL database values for all
WOD zones (listed above) and tide gauge stations in those zones (for a particular year).

SLC (mm) column: the sea level change value derived by recording the first
RLR value of the first year, then subtracting it from every subsequent year's RLR value
(including itself to derive 0 for the first year's SLC mm value).



Year RLR (mm)SLC (mm)
19057033.330
19066957.83-75.5
19076960.58-72.75
19086932-101.33
19096949.67-83.66
19106894.25-139.08
19116942-91.33
19126992.92-40.41
19136958.83-74.5
19147007.92-25.41
19156960.58-72.75
19166870.17-163.16
19176865.17-168.16
19186907.12-126.205
19196966.92-66.41
19206969.62-63.705
19216958.5-74.83
19226997.8-35.535
19236978.83-54.5
19246949.17-84.16
19256930.54-102.79
19266944.88-88.455
19276946.91-86.415
19286945.54-87.79
19296943.71-89.62
19306958.25-75.08
19316935.5-97.83
19326979.17-54.16
19336946.21-87.12
19346924.38-108.955
19356984.17-49.16
19366950.09-83.245
19376960.54-72.79
19386975.64-57.6933
19396969.75-63.5767
19406976.31-57.0233
19416987.61-45.72
19426990.64-42.6933
19436986.56-46.7733
19446936.29-97.04
19456954.46-78.8725
19466970.48-62.8525
19476967.2-66.1333
19486933.7-99.625
19497001.67-31.66
19506993.3-40.035
19516999.38-33.955
19527020.75-12.58
19536974.16-59.165
19546952.55-80.778
19556930.51-102.823
19566949.64-83.69
19576959.95-73.3771
19586984.23-49.0957
19596993.72-39.6135
19606989.33-43.9983
19617009.47-23.863
19626979.16-54.1674
19636989.43-43.8996
19646940.15-93.1767
19656994.34-38.9865
19666981.88-51.4486
19676970.18-63.1492
19686967.07-66.2613
19696960.91-72.42
19706967.63-65.7035
19716963.75-69.5787
19726987.22-46.1139
19736992.88-40.45
19746979.19-54.1389
19756983.69-49.6411
19767003.11-30.2176
19776979.91-53.416
19786978.49-54.844
19796986.52-46.8094
19807014.24-19.0895
19817002.63-30.6975
19827020.28-13.0457
19837044.2710.9379
19847027.64-5.68684
19856997.01-36.321
19867008.91-24.4221
19877014.36-18.9672
19886972.52-60.8089
19896995.02-38.315
19906999.43-33.9
19916988.69-44.6367
19926999.54-33.7879
19937034.771.43941
19946995.71-37.6159
19957007.72-25.614
19966962.82-70.5117
19977048.815.4677
19986993.95-39.3791
19996998.51-34.8171
20006992.81-40.5245
20017026.25-7.07786
20026981.21-52.1164
20037026.08-7.24692
20046987.53-45.795
20057023.65-9.67727
20067025.38-7.94923
20077041.58.17333
20087006.7-26.625
20097034.381.04643
20107033.460.126429
20117033.970.635
20127052.1718.8355
20137051.9318.596
20147056.3423.0107
20157054.4121.0813
20167082.3849.0492
20177081.7648.4311
20187086.3653.029

Pacific Appendix B1

This is an appendix to: On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 45


Ocean: North Pacific
WOD Zones:
1615 1616 1617 7617 7616 7615 7614 7613 7612 7611 7610 1513 1514 1515 1516
1517 7517 7516 7515 7514 7513 7512 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 7417 7416
7415 7414 7413 7412 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 7317 7316 7315 7314
7313 7312 7311 1210 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217 7217 7216 7215 7214
7213 7212 7211 7210 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 7117 7116 7115
7114 7113 7112 7111 7110 7109


World Ocean Database Zones



LEGEND for the HTML table below:

Year column: the year when in situ tide gauge measurements were taken.

RLR (mm) column: the average RLR value of the PSMSL database values for all
WOD zones (listed above) and tide gauge stations in those zones (for a particular year).

SLC (mm) column: the sea level change value derived by recording the first
RLR value of the first year, then subtracting it from every subsequent year's RLR value
(including itself to derive 0 for the first year's SLC mm value).



Year RLR (mm)SLC (mm)
18806935.040
18816951.1716.13
18826911.88-23.16
18836928.38-6.66
18847015.8880.84
18856970.6235.58
18866931.42-3.62
18876902.08-32.96
18886919.96-15.08
18896965.8830.84
18906977.8342.79
18916913.5-21.54
18926880.67-54.37
18936910.67-24.37
18946921.75-13.29
18956961.826.755
18966947.5712.525
18976942.197.15
18986919.58-15.46
18996937.062.01667
19006953.0418
19016869.91-65.125
19026871.66-63.3825
19036859.39-75.655
19046892.18-42.8625
19056897.55-37.492
19066911.33-23.7083
19076916.51-18.5317
19086895.36-39.68
19096953.7418.703
19106940.235.185
19116936.761.718
19126932-3.044
19136951.7416.702
19147002.2967.2455
19156988.8553.8136
19166943.218.16818
19176935.850.811818
19186971.7536.7109
19196974.0238.9775
19206987.4952.4511
19216977.4242.382
19226952.5417.498
19236993.9258.8756
19246936.781.743
19256984.4249.3791
19266964.1529.1092
19276950.8115.768
19286944.379.33231
19296924.74-10.305
19306951.9116.8694
19316951.5216.4789
19326953.3618.3247
19336947.2312.1865
1934696327.9591
19356967.4432.4
19366980.4345.3862
19376985.3550.3104
19386987.1652.1168
19396990.0655.0208
19407013.0377.9859
19417018.9483.902
19426982.8247.777
19436972.9237.8769
19447011.176.0642
19457003.3168.273
19467025.390.2644
19476997.6162.5721
19487005.6570.6078
19496994.0358.9948
19507000.3665.3218
19516987.4952.4494
19526998.4463.3993
19537004.3369.2881
19547004.8869.8391
19556978.4243.3762
19566985.1750.1251
19577009.3874.3423
19587005.0670.0156
19597004.2169.167
19606991.1456.0959
19616988.7553.7135
19626977.6942.6542
19636974.9539.9088
19646987.1652.1157
19656994.2859.236
19666992.7457.6991
19676998.1563.1055
19686983.6248.5772
19697014.979.8563
19706993.758.662
19716990.2555.2125
19727022.0487.0045
19737006.1871.1394
19747011.4376.39
19757007.8472.7993
19767014.9779.9287
19777001.7366.6896
19787002.1467.0984
19797001.4766.4257
19806998.6663.6233
19817015.2880.2435
19826996.8161.7711
19837032.3897.3356
19847001.6266.5838
19856977.3442.2981
19867002.3267.2821
19877017.182.0635
19887010.0174.968
19897023.4988.4467
19907019.3784.3348
19917028.4893.4422
19927039.58104.538
19937015.6580.6127
19947028.2793.2277
19957026.491.3597
19967014.2779.2279
19977041.17106.127
19987044.33109.287
19997041.23106.194
20007026.6891.6388
20017028.6393.5932
20027034.899.7569
20037051.17116.133
20047052.98117.942
20057040.76105.724
20067047.13112.092
20077044.94109.897
20087031.5596.5137
20097041.61106.574
20107067.75132.711
20117051.39116.35
20127074.62139.576
20137046.82111.785
20147068.84133.803
20157067.18132.143
20167097.54162.504
20177075.95140.909
20187065.6130.564
20197000.4965.453


Ocean: South Pacific
WOD Zones:
3113 3114 3115 3116 3117 5117 5116 5115 5114 5113 5112 5111 5110 5109 5108
5107 3214 3215 3216 3217 5217 5216 5215 5214 5213 5212 5211 5210 5209 5208
5207 3315 3316 3317 5317 5316 5315 5314 5313 5312 5311 5310 5309 5308 5307
3415 3416 3417 5417 5416 5415 5414 5413 5412 5411 5410 5409 5408 5407


LEGEND for the HTML table below:

Year column: the year when in situ tide gauge measurements were taken.

RLR (mm) column: the average RLR value of the PSMSL database values for all
WOD zones (listed above) and tide gauge stations in those zones (for a particular year).

SLC (mm) column: the sea level change value derived by recording the first
RLR value of the first year, then subtracting it from every subsequent year's RLR value
(including itself to derive 0 for the first year's SLC mm value).



Year RLR (mm)SLC (mm)
18866918.920
18876934.9216
18886922.753.83
18896955.1736.25
18906955.6736.75
18916957.2138.29
18926965.9647.04
18936987.2968.37
18946941.7922.87
18956948.0429.12
1896694122.08
18976961.9243
18986963.8844.96
18996949.9631.04
19006975.9257
19016944.2125.29
19026919.120.2
190369245.08
19046920.041.12
19056919.120.205
19066898.92-20
19076939.520.58
19086958.9640.04
19096961.0742.145
19106989.0270.1
19117004.6485.715
19126959.6540.725
19136948.3329.41
19146929.7610.8433
19156978.8959.97
19166938.1119.1933
19176978.4959.572
19186959.1840.256
19196943.9325.012
19206955.8736.95
19216955.236.28
19226976.5357.612
19236938.5819.6567
19246980.6461.7233
19256936.617.68
19266936.2717.3486
19276922.033.11
19286925.16.185
19296926.938.01
19306906.8-12.118
19316926.517.58667
19326901.81-17.115
19336915.36-3.55833
19346932.9914.075
19356926.968.035
19366895.08-23.8367
19376929.9811.0587
19386943.0824.1567
1939697455.08
19406925.836.914
19416949.4630.5414
19426959.2740.3467
19436969.0850.155
19446952.7133.79
19456979.5660.6391
19466991.1172.1855
19476964.9346.01
19486971.9353.0143
19496988.1569.2273
19506999.4380.5141
19517027.23108.311
19526996.8777.9547
19536989.570.5806
19546995.0676.1425
19557007.0988.17
19567003.6984.77
19577021.5102.577
19587035.21116.29
19597007.6288.7
19607017.2998.3739
19617019.58100.665
19627024.86105.942
19637014.8695.9354
19647024.98106.058
19657013.8394.9145
19666980.0761.1481
19676978.3859.4569
19686990.9872.0619
19696965.0746.1543
19706989.5270.5983
19716991.2172.2921
19726989.3870.4645
19736974.4355.509
19746996.5677.6386
19756996.0677.1435
19767002.6883.7614
19776980.3861.4647
19786989.6870.7566
19796966.5647.6443
19807000.2881.358
19817011.8792.9471
19827005.1986.2731
19836997.5878.6614
19847004.1285.1986
19856992.0373.1057
19866999.880.8777
19876981.3262.4007
19886999.3380.4078
19897010.1791.2514
19906999.0480.1158
19916989.3170.3926
19926984.2465.3222
19936956.2837.3614
19946960.4641.5369
19956976.4957.5708
19967002.4883.5562
19976983.3764.4454
19986993.0974.1722
19997022.28103.363
20007025.4106.475
20017024.31105.394
20026996.8277.9029
20037003.1484.2213
20046994.575.5829
20056997.9579.0294
20066998.1379.2081
20077001.7182.7853
20087020.84101.919
20097030.63111.712
20107042.83123.911
20117057.7138.78
20127043.43124.506
20137056.46137.542
20147042.07123.147
20157043.48124.556
20167054.64135.723
20177063.11144.191
20187063.05144.132
20197045.29126.368

Polar Appendix C1

This is an appendix to: On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 45


Ocean: Arctic
WOD Zones:
1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816 1817
7817 7816 7815 7814 7813 7812 7811 7810 7809 7808 7807 7806 7805 7804 7803
7802 7801 7800 1800 1801 1802 1703 1704 1705 1706 1707 1708 1709 1710 1711
1712 1713 1714 1715 1716 1717 7717 7716 7715 7714 7713 7712 7711 7710 7709
7708 7707 7706 7705 7702 7701 7700 1700 1701 1702 1603 1604 1605 1606


World Ocean Database Zones



LEGEND for the HTML table below:

Year column: the year when in situ tide gauge measurements were taken.

RLR (mm) column: the average RLR value of the PSMSL database values for all
WOD zones (listed above) and tide gauge stations in those zones (for a particular year).

SLC (mm) column: the sea level change value derived by recording the first
RLR value of the first year, then subtracting it from every subsequent year's RLR value
(including itself to derive 0 for the first year's SLC mm value).



Year RLR (mm)SLC (mm)
19066686.670
19076633.33-53.34
19266635.5-51.17
19276632.25-54.42
19286667.25-19.42
19306656.83-29.84
19316833.12146.455
19327049.08362.41
19337016.71330.04
19347001.25314.58
19356975.21288.54
19366802.12115.455
19376752.3465.665
19386827.98141.31
19396828.78142.11
19406715.328.625
19416589.61-97.06
19426554.25-132.42
19436727.7941.1233
19446674.15-12.52
19456564.09-122.585
19466596.38-90.295
19476763.1976.5233
19486980.86294.188
19496913.61226.942
19506976.44289.769
19516990.53303.856
19526929.49242.825
19536994.89308.215
19546997.11310.439
19556949.83263.163
19566897.98211.308
19576935.24248.573
19586926.58239.908
19596988.71302.037
19606931.22244.554
19616955.56268.895
19626956.7270.03
19636971.72285.049
19646987.33300.656
19656920.02233.353
19666938.17251.495
19677054367.327
19686990.29303.617
19696956.23269.559
19706941.62254.947
19716976.63289.956
19726984.03297.359
19736975.59288.916
19746934.69248.017
19757014.16327.494
19766979.4292.732
19776920.09233.419
19786927.77241.1
19796910.51223.844
19806940.15253.485
19816975.75289.075
19826991.47304.795
19837006.7320.028
19846966.45279.781
19856938.81252.139
19866970.26283.595
19876987.51300.836
19886991.93305.256
19897058.78372.108
19907037.15350.478
19917042.65355.982
19927040.46353.787
19937034.8348.125
19947038.1351.434
19957021.6334.926
19967026.95340.278
19977031.19344.517
19987009.83323.156
19997024.17337.497
20007011.62324.949
20017038.93352.265
20027035.43348.76
20037064.74378.073
20047038.8352.129
20057055.42368.75
20067047.63360.96
20077061.88375.21
20087050.16363.489
20097022.13335.457
20106963.54276.867
20117040.08353.414
20127027.74341.07
20136999.74313.069
20147016.54329.871
20157061.96375.293
20167064.43377.759
20177034.98348.312
20187063.7377.029
20196989.3302.63


Ocean: Southern
WOD Zones:
3503 3504 3505 3506 3507 3508 3509 3510 3511 3512 3513 3514 3515 3516 3517
5517 5516 5515 5514 5513 5512 5511 5510 5509 5508 5507 5506 5505 5504 5503
5502 5501 5500 3500 3501 3502 3603 3604 3605 3606 3607 3608 3609 3610 3611
3612 3613 3614 3615 3616 3617 5617 5616 5615 5614 5613 5612 5611 5610 5609
5608 5607 5606 5605 5604 5603 5602 5601 5600 3600 3601 3602 3706 3707 3708
3709 3710 3711 3716 3717 5717 5716 5715 5714 5713 5712 5711 5710 5709 5708
5707 5706 5705 5704 5703 5702 5701 5700 3700 3701 3702 5816


LEGEND for the HTML table below:

Year column: the year when in situ tide gauge measurements were taken.

RLR (mm) column: the average RLR value of the PSMSL database values for all
WOD zones (listed above) and tide gauge stations in those zones (for a particular year).

SLC (mm) column: the sea level change value derived by recording the first
RLR value of the first year, then subtracting it from every subsequent year's RLR value
(including itself to derive 0 for the first year's SLC mm value).



Year RLR (mm)SLC (mm)
195769570
19586927.86-29.14
19596881.93-75.07
19606926.8-30.205
19617026.2469.24
19627000.7343.7325
19636956.13-0.873333
19647079.81122.807
19657122.45165.445
19667030.9173.9086
19677065.76108.757
19687090.42133.416
19697065.59108.589
19706991.8534.8533
19717026.3169.3125
19727019.8962.885
19737018.4461.44
19747124.43167.43
19756965.848.8425
19766964.417.415
19776963.166.1575
19786957.380.375
19796914.52-42.48
19806920.71-36.2933
19816930.01-26.99
19826918.06-38.94
19836939.41-17.585
19846914.18-42.82
19856966.839.83333
19866960.283.27667
19876928.19-28.805
19886917.29-39.7075
19896964.27.1975
19906999.7442.736
19916955.32-1.68167
19927032.8175.8057
19937073.44116.438
19947074.97117.974
19957066.52109.523
19967064.23107.23
19977042.7685.7587
19987075.55118.547
19997082.84125.838
20007072.59115.59
20017068.06111.061
20027059.87102.869
20037087.57130.573
20047090.99133.988
20057072.9115.899
20067099.77142.771
20077119.24162.24
20087110.03153.033
20097133.68176.682
20107144.7187.698
20117140.11183.106
20127160.63203.634
20137141.45184.448
20147015.6958.6875
20157010.0453.035
20166988.1431.1375
20177033.9676.9567
20187044.887.8033

Equatorial Appendix D1

This is an appendix to: On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 45


Ocean: Equatorial Pacific
WOD Zones:
1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 7017 7016 7015 7014 7013
7012 7011 7010 7009 7008 7007 3008 3009 3010 3011 3012 3013 3014 3015 3016
3017 5017 5016 5015 5014 5013 5012 5011 5010 5009 5008 5007

World Ocean Database Zones



LEGEND for the HTML table below:

Year column: the year when in situ tide gauge measurements were taken.

RLR (mm) column: the average RLR value of the PSMSL database values for all
WOD zones (listed above) and tide gauge stations in those zones (for a particular year).

SLC (mm) column: the sea level change value derived by recording the first
RLR value of the first year, then subtracting it from every subsequent year's RLR value
(including itself to derive 0 for the first year's SLC mm value).



Year RLR (mm)SLC (mm)
19086943.460
19096966.2522.79
19106945.652.185
19116981.2737.815
19126942.85-0.61
19136971.628.145
19146981.1737.71
19156998.8355.37
19166960.3316.87
19176926.59-16.875
19186982.2338.77
19196965.1521.685
19206976.7133.25
19217000.9457.48
19226989.8546.39
1923696521.54
19246937.54-5.92
1925697228.54
19266952.258.79
19276984.1340.67
19286975.8832.415
19296982.639.145
19306997.1253.665
19316970.426.935
19326986.2542.79
19336956.8413.375
19346960.4116.955
19356975.131.645
19366988.4144.955
19377009.1565.685
19386987.9144.455
19396985.5242.065
19407075.79132.333
19417101.61158.15
19427053.64110.18
19437050.48107.02
19447025.2881.8167
19457001.2957.8317
19467003.560.0386
19477017.1473.6812
19487020.3976.9292
19496994.5151.05
19507007.8664.3979
19517021.0877.6207
19526998.3554.894
19537039.5696.1031
19547013.7170.2506
19557024.1180.65
19567026.2382.7689
19577056.49113.029
19587036.6293.1552
19597023.6480.1824
19607028.5585.089
19617013.0669.603
19627023.479.9411
19637044.11100.651
19647009.265.7389
19657055.26111.797
19667023.4780.0127
19677029.185.641
19687024.5781.11
19697018.9275.4632
19707013.9770.5141
19717045.48102.016
19726992.4949.0328
19737029.6286.1567
19747040.5697.0992
19757066.38122.917
19767045.9102.441
19777036.7593.2864
19787049.82106.364
19797048.1104.637
19807044.67101.213
19817054.09110.635
19827021.9978.5289
19837000.3156.8479
19847019.7676.3005
19857023.3679.8956
19867020.4476.9813
19876983.940.4402
19887026.1582.692
19897045.61102.153
19907027.2783.8131
19917022.9779.511
19927000.5957.127
19936996.6253.1586
19947007.9164.452
19957020.0676.6033
19967041.2897.8219
19976984.2940.8323
19986983.840.3421
19997046.89103.431
20007052.45108.99
20017054.47111.008
20027010.9967.528
20037022.9979.5302
20047020.2976.8278
20057018.1574.6896
20067014.7671.3002
20077023.0779.6098
20087054.23110.765
20097050.95107.486
20107059.02115.558
20117062.72119.259
20127071.86128.4
20137082.56139.098
20147048.82105.358
20157020.0176.5528
20167052.85109.387
20177081.18137.72
20187058.58115.118
20197048.77105.309


Ocean: Equatorial Indian
WOD Zones:
1004 1005 1006 1007 3003 3004 3005 3006 3007


LEGEND for the HTML table below:

Year column: the year when in situ tide gauge measurements were taken.

RLR (mm) column: the average RLR value of the PSMSL database values for all
WOD zones (listed above) and tide gauge stations in those zones (for a particular year).

SLC (mm) column: the sea level change value derived by recording the first
RLR value of the first year, then subtracting it from every subsequent year's RLR value
(including itself to derive 0 for the first year's SLC mm value).



Year RLR (mm)SLC (mm)
19396902.880
19406816-86.88
19416815.38-87.5
19426818.04-84.84
19436840.33-62.55
19446820.21-82.67
19456814.29-88.59
19466843.23-59.65
19476863.21-39.67
19486879.17-23.71
19496887.33-15.55
19506881.96-20.92
19516878-24.88
19526857.12-45.76
19536870-32.88
19546903.040.16
19556911.468.58
19566891.1-11.78
19586907.384.5
19596967.7964.91
19606956.1753.29
19616952.549.62
19626944.0841.2
19636954.3351.45
19646990.1887.295
19656986.9384.045
19667026.62123.745
19677022.84119.965
19687054.95152.075
19696988.4285.5367
19707037.5134.62
19717038.64135.757
19727002.5199.6267
19737027.34124.46
19747140.96238.08
19757001.4998.6133
19766966.2163.3267
19776984.681.72
19787001.1598.2733
19797030.26127.38
19807026.88124
19817028.27125.39
19826970.0567.165
19836997.3194.43
19846963.8260.94
19856981.1278.2433
19866945.9443.065
19876979.6776.792
19887013.16110.277
19896988.3985.5129
19907011.85108.97
19917023.88121
19927004.53101.655
19936987.8885.0014
19947022.46119.581
19957021.44118.56
19967006.15103.265
19977039.14136.256
19987077.18174.305
19997026.13123.252
20007012.13109.249
20016976.773.8157
20026997.6194.735
20036997.5394.645
20047006.23103.354
20056999.8796.9914
20067043.94141.059
20077052.03149.15
20087046.13143.252
20097044.24141.36
20107064.55161.671
20117067.92165.043
20127065.87162.993
20137061.71158.832
20147079.03176.155
20157109.38206.501
20167085.68182.8
20177046.89144.009
20187075.21172.328


Ocean: Equatorial Atlantic
WOD Zones:
7006 7005 7004 7003 7002 7001 7000 1000 5004 5003 5002 5001 5000 3000 3001


LEGEND for the HTML table below:

Year column: the year when in situ tide gauge measurements were taken.

RLR (mm) column: the average RLR value of the PSMSL database values for all
WOD zones (listed above) and tide gauge stations in those zones (for a particular year).

SLC (mm) column: the sea level change value derived by recording the first
RLR value of the first year, then subtracting it from every subsequent year's RLR value
(including itself to derive 0 for the first year's SLC mm value).



Year RLR (mm)SLC (mm)
19296980.670
19306965.08-15.59
19316943.21-37.46
19326968.08-12.59
19337022.2941.62
19346862.27-118.4
19356857.27-123.4
19366998.0817.41
19377020.2939.62
19387012.4631.79
1939700928.33
19407030.3349.66
19417053.0872.41
19427045.2564.58
19437045.4664.79
19447061.4680.79
19457062.3881.71
19467050.4669.79
19477067.1786.5
19487045.8865.21
19497069.0488.37
19507041.4660.79
19517055.9275.25
19527065.3884.71
19537058.3877.71
19547080.1799.5
19557084.38103.71
19567053.9673.29
19577058.9678.29
19587020.2139.54
19597039.2158.54
19607049.9669.29
19617065.5484.87
19627070.3889.71
19637073.3692.695
19647038.6557.975
19657030.4349.765
19667073.6592.98
19677061.8481.165
19687021.9241.2467
19697005.9125.2367
19707004.9724.3
19717006.3125.6425
19727031.5350.86
19737080.4599.7833
19747055.7375.0575
19756956.93-23.7425
19766974.91-5.75667
19776943.74-36.9267
19786952.62-28.0467
19796960.21-20.46
19807054.473.725
19816943-37.67
19826947.84-32.835
19836768.77-211.9
19846786.96-193.71
19856746.54-234.13
19866747.33-233.34
19876816.83-163.84
19886901.65-79.025
19896863-117.67
19906832.71-147.96
19916943.09-37.585
19926944.06-36.61
19936942.79-37.88
19946976.71-3.96
19956975.08-5.59
19966983.212.54
19976970.12-10.55
19986967.88-12.79
19996957.29-23.38
20006977.12-3.55
20016950.58-30.09
20026956.38-24.29
20036915.75-64.92
20046943.08-37.59
20066991.510.83
20077025.9345.2633
20087045.8165.1433
20097093.84113.165
20107089.25108.58
20117106.33125.66
20127087.63106.96
20137047.0966.42
20147050.5969.92
2015703857.33
20167051.2570.58
20177051.170.43
20187044.8264.15

Indian Appendix E1

This is an appendix to: On Thermal Expansion & Thermal Contraction - 45

Ocean: North Indian
WOD Zones:
1108 1109 1208 1209

World Ocean Database Zones



LEGEND for the HTML table below:

Year column: the year when in situ tide gauge measurements were taken.

RLR (mm) column: the average RLR value of the PSMSL database values for all
WOD zones (listed above) and tide gauge stations in those zones (for a particular year).

SLC (mm) column: the sea level change value derived by recording the first
RLR value of the first year, then subtracting it from every subsequent year's RLR value
(including itself to derive 0 for the first year's SLC mm value).



Year RLR (mm)SLC (mm)
18817174.520
18827075.87-98.645
18837037.09-137.43
18847049.85-124.66
18857063.2-111.31
18867018.71-155.805
18877250.7976.275
18887123.75-50.765
18897249.8375.315
18907348.42173.905
18917084.33-90.185
18927152.83-21.685
18937292.75118.235
19166886.5-288.015
19176871.64-302.878
19186876.33-298.182
19196873.15-301.365
19206878.21-296.308
19216923.54-250.975
19227095.79-78.725
19236849.83-324.685
19247013.96-160.555
19256895.5-279.015
19266888.54-285.975
19276894.45-280.065
19287177.63.085
19296939.71-234.805
19306918.25-256.265
19316965.17-209.345
19326815.67-358.845
19336941.58-232.935
19346859.79-314.725
19356765.62-408.895
19366943.12-231.395
19376901.59-272.923
19386959.56-214.957
19396944.13-230.387
19406883.3-291.217
19416918.59-255.923
19426913.65-260.865
19436944.96-229.557
19446926.28-248.235
19456955.2-219.318
19466956.44-218.07
19476957.75-216.769
19486952.89-221.625
19496944.15-230.362
19506967.73-206.785
19516909.05-265.467
19526981.22-193.3
19536953.21-221.304
19546967.68-206.833
19557004.05-170.467
19567002.42-172.094
19576944.97-229.544
19586990.73-183.785
19597025.72-148.799
19606994.2-180.316
19616952.35-222.162
19627005.38-169.139
19636947.59-226.924
19646995.75-178.763
19656919.29-255.228
19666920.35-254.168
19676913.75-260.766
19686953.87-220.644
19696948.32-226.197
19707026.56-147.956
19717085.59-88.9217
19726887.84-286.677
19737039.13-135.387
19747005.28-169.234
19757022.34-152.17
19767028.61-145.9
19777103.59-70.925
19787081.26-93.2575
19796999.75-174.769
19807034.4-140.117
19817074.3-100.211
19826951.63-222.887
19837027.83-146.687
19847112.46-62.0536
19857043.72-130.791
19867008.11-166.401
19877033.4-141.113
19887093.8-80.7114
19897090.1-84.4104
19907109.53-64.985
19917080.9-93.6135
19927058.99-115.521
19937059.2-115.32
19947026.1-148.412
19957138.29-36.2264
19967126.94-47.57
19977073.89-100.624
19987038.39-136.121
19997181.246.725
20007159.05-15.4612
20017170.22-4.29875
20027118.67-55.8494
20037111.92-62.5983
20047166.47-8.05
20057133.8-40.716
20067096.23-78.2872
20077095.81-78.7061
20087131.83-42.6861
20097086-88.5161
20107138.38-36.1394
20117136.56-37.9506
20127132.93-41.5828
20137160.13-14.3806
20147092.48-82.035
20157066.26-108.254
20167102.57-71.945
20177122.97-51.545
20187072.23-102.285


Ocean: South Indian
WOD Zones:
3103 3104 3105 3106 3107 3108 3109 3110 3111 3112 3203 3204 3205 3206 3207
3208 3209 3210 3211 3303 3304 3305 3306 3307 3308 3309 3310 3311 3312 3313
3314 3403 3404 3405 3406 3407 3408 3409 3410 3411 3412 3413 3414


LEGEND for the HTML table below:

Year column: the year when in situ tide gauge measurements were taken.

RLR (mm) column: the average RLR value of the PSMSL database values for all
WOD zones (listed above) and tide gauge stations in those zones (for a particular year).

SLC (mm) column: the sea level change value derived by recording the first
RLR value of the first year, then subtracting it from every subsequent year's RLR value
(including itself to derive 0 for the first year's SLC mm value).



Year RLR (mm)SLC (mm)
18976568.790
18986640.9172.12
18996635.3366.54
19006611.4442.65
19016617.1748.38
19036610.0441.25
19046648.4679.67
19056612.0443.25
19066650.581.71
19086551.54-17.25
19096637.7568.96
19126645.3376.54
19136801232.21
19146489.22-79.57
19156578.8810.09
19166613.5844.79
19176698.09129.3
19186632.2963.5
19196521.67-47.12
19206594.5825.79
19216676.67107.88
19226618.2549.46
19236641.2972.5
19246673.88105.09
19256640.3671.57
19276855.87287.08
19286824.77255.985
19296814.98246.19
19306786.12217.335
19316817.21248.42
19326656.2187.42
19336844.33275.54
19346867.23298.44
19356879.03310.237
19366874.04305.25
19376880.37311.583
19386827.4258.61
19396884315.21
19406733.19164.403
19416743.2174.408
19426829.48260.694
19436865.38296.586
19446916.78347.99
19456920.69351.903
19466935.17366.382
19476915.42346.628
19486882.11313.318
19496896.59327.8
19506934.23365.439
19516941.05372.26
19526945.27376.475
19536882.52313.734
19546859.52290.733
19556918.9350.105
19566919.83351.043
19576871.91303.123
19586896.76327.969
19596888.27319.479
19606907.13338.344
19616912.76343.97
19626928.59359.8
19636913.13344.344
19646923.11354.323
19656874.28305.489
19666901.91333.116
19676921.13352.337
19686951.9383.114
19696862.55293.761
19706935.92367.125
19716947.58378.789
19726884.41315.624
19736920.75351.96
19746950.21381.425
19756965.97397.178
19766925.49356.703
19776929.04360.254
19786950.45381.665
19796921.83353.037
19806935.78366.993
19816956.49387.702
19826907.47338.675
19836918.2349.406
19846939.94371.151
19856894325.21
19866911.61342.819
19876889.82321.033
19886967.61398.822
19896962.4393.606
19906927.39358.6
19916904.36335.567
19926900.58331.786
19936902.49333.701
19946934.44365.646
19956946.14377.349
19966997.89429.101
19976926.08357.287
19986951.55382.764
19997008.28439.495
20007028.58459.795
20017012.54443.751
20026962.41393.625
20036961.32392.531
20046968.66399.867
20056984.37415.575
20066965.28396.489
20077002.35433.558
20087036.76467.973
20097017.7448.907
20107013.46444.666
20117054.71485.917
20127056.02487.229
20137065.44496.653
20147024.97456.182
20156979.62410.835
20167023.11454.321
20177041.35472.558
20187037.74468.954
20197078.41509.62