Saturday, February 24, 2018

Wooden Ships

Wooden Ships
33 WOD Zones with 231 bottom pressure stations
Fig. 1a
Fig. 1b
Fig. 1c
Fig. 1d
Fig. 1e
Fig. 1f
Fig. 1g
Fig. 1h
Fig. 2a
Fig. 2b
Fig. 2c
Fig. 2d
Fig. 2e
Fig. 2f
Fig. 2g
Fig. 2h
Fig. 2i
Fig. 2j
Fig. 2k
Fig. 2l
Fig. 2m
I. Background

In a prior post I mentioned that two scientists indicated that bottom pressure was potentially a more accurate indicator of ocean mass changes (at the cm accuracy-level) than satellite or tide gauge records are:
"Bottom pressure may serve as a better observation of this mass component than sea level. Ocean model results, which represent only dynamic processes, suggest that bottom pressure in the deep ocean exhibits much smaller variability than sea level (Vinogradova et al., 2007). Thus, in principle, it should be easier to detect a 1-cm annual change in ocean level in a measurement of bottom pressure than in a sea level measurement."
(Very Breezy). Those scientists cited to a paper by some other scientists who gave a detailed discussion of that issue (Relation between sea level and bottom pressure).

Another paper I found indicates that only one moored bottom pressure site could accomplish the task if properly located, and if there was enough data.

The graphs shown today follow that paper's advice:
"If we are to use available data to test whether this concept works in practice, we must therefore focus on the annual cycle."
(Weighing The Oceans). Yes, these are graphs of daily records converted into annual mean averages.

So, as you might guess, after reading those papersI felt compelled to acquire bottom pressure records.

I wanted to take a look at them to see if they could be a benefit.

II. The Location of
Bottom Pressure Stations

The graphic at the top of the post, under the sailing ship, has 33 red squares placed on the Zone map.

Those red squares are in Zones where the 231 bottom pressure stations are, or were, located.

Here is the list of those stations in the following order: Dredd Blog station number, the official station code, and the WOD zone number:

stn_num, stn_code, zone
====================
1, 55013_0813, 3416
2, MYb9903_QD109072, 5604
3, MYb9903_DQ43118, 5604
4, MYa9296_DQ43118, 5505
5, 32401_0610, 5207
6, 55015_1114, 3416
7, 51406_1013, 5012
8, 23401_0609, 1008
9, 44401_0710, 7304
10, 52405_1012, 1113
11, 52402_1012, 1115
12, 54401_0912, 5317
13, 46402_0204, 7516
14, 51426_0810, 5216
15, 51425_0810, 5017
16, 32401_1114, 5207
17, 55012_1012, 3115
18, 56001_0911, 3111
19, 43413_0709, 7110
20, 51407_0507, 7115
21, DPS_DEEP_1113_DQ105443, 5605
22, MYc0508_DQ96819, 5605
23, MYc0508_DQ96820, 5605
24, 56003_0911, 3111
25, 32411_0709, 7009
26, 42407_1214, 7106
27, DPS_DEEP_0911_DQ43122, 5605
28, DPS0911_DQ68485, 5605
29, DPN0911_DQ68489, 5505
30, 43413_1012, 7110
31, DPS9496_DQ43513, 5605
32, DPS9496_DQ46251, 5605
33, 43412_0911, 7110
34, DPS0608_DQ68489, 5605
35, 51425_1113, 5017
36, DPN0608_DQ68485, 5505
37, DPN9496_DQ52026, 5505
38, DPN9496_DQ44935, 5505
39, 51407_1113, 7115
40, 42407_0608, 7106
41, 41420_1012, 7206
42, 55015_0911, 3416
43, 51407_0709, 7115
44, DPN0709_DQ68483, 5505
45, 41421_0608, 7206
46, DPS0709_DQ105443, 5605
47, DPS0002_DQ46251, 5605
48, 41420_0608, 7206
49, DPS0204_DQ46251, 5605
50, 32412_0709, 5108
51, 56003_1113, 3111
52, 51406_0810, 5012
53, 46403_0507, 7515
54, 46403_0204, 7515
55, 46402_0709, 7516
56, 52406_1012, 3016
57, 41421_1012, 7206
58, 51406_0608, 5012
59, 55012_1214, 3115
60, 46403_1113, 7515
61, 52403_0809, 1014
62, 32401_0506, 5207
63, 32412_0911, 5108
64, 32412_1112, 5108
65, 32411_1214, 7009
66, 56001_1113, 3111
67, 43413_1214, 7110
68, 43412_1214, 7110
69, 32413_1012, 5009
70, 46403_0709, 7515
71, 44401_1113, 7305
72, 23401_1112, 1008
73, 52402_0809, 1115
74, 51406_0103, 5012
75, 52405_0608, 1113
76, 52403_1011, 1014
77, 46402_0506, 7516
78, 51407_1011, 7115
79, 51406_0304, 5012
80, 52402_0608, 1115
81, 52403_0608, 1014
82, 46403_1314, 7515
83, 46402_1314, 7516
84, 52406_0809, 3016
85, 51406_0405, 5012
86, 23228_1113, 1206
87, 43412_0709, 7110
88, 55042_1314, 3416
89, DPS9697_DQ46267, 5605
90, DPS9697_DQ52026, 5605
91, DPS9697_DQ44935, 5605
92, 42407_0809, 7106
93, DPN0304_DQ68485, 5505
94, 46403_1011, 7515
95, DPN_DEEP_1315_DQ90803, 5505
96, DPN_DEEP_1315_120411, 5505
97, DPN9697_QD49187, 5505
98, 41420_1213, 7206
99, DPS9293_DQ40375, 5605
100, DPS9293_DQ43122, 5605
101, 46402_0102, 7516
102, DPN_DEEP_1213_DQ43122, 5505
103, DPN9293_DQ43126, 5505
104, DPN9293_DQ41086, 5505
105, DPN9293_DQ38173, 5505
106, 52403_1314, 1014
107, DPS0405_DQ93161, 5605
108, DPN0506_DQ68483, 5505
109, 52402_1213, 1115
110, 52403_1213, 1014
111, DPS0506_DQ44935, 5605
112, DPS0506_DQ46267, 5605
113, 32411_1112, 7009
114, DPS9394_DQ40375, 5605
115, DPS9394_DQ41077, 5605
116, 56001_1314, 3111
117, DPN9394_DQ41086, 5505
118, DPN9394_DQ41083, 5505
119, 46402_1112, 7516
120, DPS9900_DQ46251, 5605
121, 41421_0910, 7206
122, 51406_0506, 5012
123, DPN0405_DQ46251, 5505
124, DPN0405_DQ43513, 5505
125, DPN9900_DQ68484, 5505
126, 46402_1011, 7516
127, 46403_0102, 7515
128, DPN0809_DQ44935, 5505
129, DPN0809_DQ46267, 5505
130, 46403_0910, 7515
131, 51425_1314, 5017
132, 55401_0708, 3416
133, DPN9899_DQ43513, 5505
134, DPN9899_DQ46251, 5505
135, DPS9899_DQ46267, 5605
136, DPS9899_DQ52026, 5605
137, DPS9899_DQ44935, 5605
138, DPS9798_DQ46251, 5605
139, DPS9798_QD49187, 5605
140, 46402_1213, 7516
141, 55015_0809, 3416
142, 44401_1011, 7305
143, 42407_1011, 7106
144, 41421_1314, 7206
145, 41420_1314, 7206
146, 46402_9900, 7516
147, 46402_0001, 7516
148, 46403_9899, 7515
149, 46403_9900, 7515
150, 32411_0910, 7009
151, DPN1215_DQ68489, 5505
152, 52406_1213, 3016
153, 23401_1213, 1008
154, 23228_1313, 1206
155, N4_Vg_P2_7980, 7407
156, 52405_0809, 1113
157, 51407_1314, 7115
158, 51425_1011, 5017
159, 32413_1212, 5009
160, 32401_1011, 5207
161, 55042_1111, 3416
162, 32401_1414, 5207
163, 51407_0910, 7115
164, N1_Pc2_P1_7980, 7407
165, N1_Pc2_P2_7980, 7407
166, 32413_1414, 5009
167, N4_Kl2_7980, 7407
168, N5_Kw2_7980, 7407
169, 32411_1011, 7009
170, 52403_1112, 1014
171, NESS_A1_1976b, 7407
172, GOM_PcB_P1_1977, 7407
173, GOM_PcB_P2_1977, 7407
174, N5_Kw1_7980, 7407
175, 42407_0910, 7106
176, N1_Pc1_P2_7980, 7407
177, N1_Pc1_P1_7980, 7407
178, NESS_A2_1976b, 7307
179, 55012_0910, 3115
180, 32411_0909, 7009
181, 23401_0910, 1008
182, 53401_0708, 1009
183, 55012_0809, 3115
184, 52405_1313, 1113
185, NESS_U2_1976b, 7406
186, 51426_1010, 5216
187, N2_USGS3_7980, 7407
188, 52402_1313, 1115
189, 41420_0910, 7206
190, 41421_0809, 7206
191, 54401_0808b, 5317
192, NESS_U1_1976b, 7406
193, 52406_1313b, 3016
194, 54401_0909, 5317
195, GOM_PcA_P2_1977, 7407
196, GOM_PcA_P1_1977, 7407
197, 52406_1313a, 3016
198, N2_USGS1_7980, 7407
199, N2_USGS2_7980, 7407
200, 51426_1111, 5216
201, 54401_0808a, 5317
202, 46402_0606, 7516
203, NESS_KlB_1976a, 7307
204, NESS_B3_1976b, 7406
205, 52405_1212, 1113
206, 43413_0910, 7110
207, 46403_0404, 7515
208, NESS_B1_1976b, 7406
209, NESS_B6_1976b, 7406
210, NESS_A4_1976b, 7407
211, N2_Kl1_7980, 7407
212, 41420_0909, 7206
213, NESS_B23_1976b, 7406
214, NESS_B22A_1976b, 7406
215, NESS_B22B_1976b, 7406
216, NESS_B21_1976b, 7406
217, GOM_MoB_7475, 7406
218, GOM_CPo_7475, 7407
219, GOM_CaL_7475, 7407
220, 56003_1313, 3111
221, NESS_KwA_1976a, 7306
222, 41420_0808, 7206
223, 23228_1111, 1206
224, 52405_0909, 1113
225, NESS_KlA_1976a, 7307
226, NESS_PcA_P2_1976a, 7407
227, NESS_PcA_P1_1976a, 7407
228, NESS_B4_1976b, 7406
229, 55012_0808, 3115
230, NESS_PcB_1976a, 7407
231, NESS_KwB_1976a, 7306

[UPDATE: the station numbers will
be changed soon. Some additions
and some deletions]

I am not finished with searching and gathering, but I wanted to develop some of the software and establish SQL tables with which to begin to analyze this bottom pressure scenario.

While I continue the search for more bottom pressure records, I will, from time to time, share the progress made or lost.

Today's graphs show results of processing PSMSL bottom pressure records already acquired.

I stored the data in such a manner as to be able to select and process them by WOD zone, ocean area, and WOD latitude layer (a band stretching around the globe at a particular latitude).

The graphs at Fig. 1a - Fig. 1g are the ocean area graphs, while the graphs at Fig. 2aFig. 2m are the layer graphs.

The gyrations in the graphs may seem radical and spasmodic.

That is because of the limited quantity of data (in some cases).

Nevertheless, they do show that the ocean is active in terms of mass change.

Remember that the mass is what causes the major bottom pressure, not the volume changes caused by thermal expansion and contraction.

It is the same with sea level change, mass increase is the main factor, thermal expansion is a minor factor.

That is why watching the bottom pressure change is worthwhile.

III. The Two Graph Lines

In the supporting comments found in the file headers of the datasets I downloaded from PSMSL, these two statements are found: 1) "Residual pressure after removal of tidal prediction, in millibars" and 2) "Residual pressure after removal of tidal prediction and drift, in millibars."

Those two statements describe the two lines on the graphs.

The first is the residual pressure value in millibars with "tidal drift"  while the second is the residual pressure value without tidal drift.

The papers cited earlier in this post explain how the researchers remove "noise" from the data (such as changes in pressure caused by daily high and low tides) which take place as both increases and decreases in bottom pressure.

As time goes on I don't plan to use the lines with the tidal changes because it is a function of solar and lunar gravity, not ocean mass changes.

Another thing that likely will not be a common factor is the layer graphs.

They are included to show that changes take place all over the ocean at every latitude.

But the important factors are associated with ghost water relocation from the ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, as well as large glacier fields around the globe (NASA Busts The Ghost).

The tide gauge stations don't record the highest increase in ocean mass because they are along the coasts of the land masses.

The bottom pressure gauges are out further, and they are in deep waters.

That will help us determine where the melt water is ending up, by giving clues beyond what the satellite altimetry is giving us.

IV. Conclusion

We have come a long way from the time we used wooden ships to measure what we could with long ropes, buckets, and bottles.

The beat goes on.

That is it for today, except for:



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