## Monday, July 23, 2018

### The World According To Measurements - 17

 Fig. 1 Water Volume
Regular readers will remember that I recently indicated that I was perusing the TEOS-10 software library for some helpful confirmation routines.

The ones I found during that searched and analyzed (gsw_specvol, and gsw_rho) did the trick.

I can now use them to confirm the formula, which regular readers will remember, that I have used to calculate thermosteric sea level changes (V1 = V0 * (1 + B * DT).

The TEOS-10 software library routines calculate density and volume as they increase and/or decrease.

The graphic at Fig. 1 depicts an axiom: as density increases volume decreases (and vice versa).

That is explained to some degree by the statement: "density is the number of molecules / atoms in a space, while volume is how far apart those molecules / atoms are from one another."

So, we have to know the parameters of the "space" and we have to know how much mass is in that space.

Anyway, after updating my WOD data recently, I wanted to provide a link to a paper that covers a small portion of the World Ocean Database (WOD Arctic, PDF).
 Fig. 2
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 Fig.5
 Fig.6
 Fig.7
 Fig. 8 WOD zone quadrant view

It covers the WOD quite well, indicating how valuable that data is.

Since the area is a critical part of the world climate system, it is worth considering for a number of reasons.

I am fortunate enough to have all CTD and PFL WOD data, so I know that the WOD is incredible.

With the new analysis, the notion that thermal expansion is "the major cause of sea level rise" is falsified, while "the ice sheets are melting" is confirmed as the major cause of sea level rise.

On to the graphs.

The graph at Fig. 2 is the PSMSL sea level change record for the tide gauge stations that give a general concept of sea level change (see the video here).

The graph at Fig. 3 applies TEOS-10 functions to all WOD Zones.

The graph at Fig. 4 applies TEOS-10 functions to the NE Quadrant of WOD Zones.

The graph at Fig. 5 applies TEOS-10 functions to the NW Quadrant of WOD Zones.

The graph at Fig. 6 applies TEOS-10 functions to the SE Quadrant of WOD Zones.

And finally,  the graph at Fig. 7 applies TEOS-10 functions to the SW Quadrant of WOD Zones.

Notice that the specific volume is opposite to the density graph.

As one increases the other decreases accordingly.

Volume increase indicates that thermal expansion could be taking place, while density increase indicates that thermal contraction could be taking place.

The Conservative Temperature and Absolute Salinity graphs show that they have a part in the equation as to the expansion and contraction of each ocean quadrant.

The graphic at Fig. 8 outlines the four quadrants (NE, NW, SE, and SW).

Note that the 4 quadrants are separated according to the zero degree latitude and longitude lines, and the 180 degree longitude line.

Blue circles with "NE", "NW", "SE", and "SW" in them mark the four quadrants (the two narrow slices on the right-hand side of the graphic are part of the two eastern quadrants).

What I am working on now is using these functions to confirm the validity of a formula:
"These TEOS-10 functions can help keep a check and balance on the formula I use (V1 = V0 * (1 + B * DT) to calculate thermal expansion and contraction."
(The World According To Measurements - 16). I have a preliminary routine that multiples the Revised Local Reference (RLR) constant by the TEOS-10 specific volume value (see graphs for the specific volume values).

That comes very close to the thermal expansion / contraction pattern, so I am on the trail (cf. Proof of Concept - 10).

The next post in this series is here, the previous post in this series is here.