|Fig. 1 "I see ghost water"|
The sub-title of today's post is: "On the origin and evolution of ghost-water" (a type of nomad water).
There are two types of nomad water.
One type is water which the scientific community commentariat sees, the other type is the ghost-water hidden right before their eyes, yes, the water hidden in very plain sight.
Some people can't "see" the ghost-water, some can, which brings up the old saying "there are none more blind than those who refuse to see."
Today, then, I will again point out the ghost-water that has been hiding in our eyes for quite some time, and then point out some 5th grade physics that can remove every mystery about ghost-water (except maybe the spookiness of not having discovered it earlier).
The twin nomad of ghost-water (ice sheet melt-water) is commonly seen by many, and is added to their sea level change (SLC) calculations.
The major quantities of ghost-water, however, are not added to their SLC calculations.
Some scientists know about it, but the majority of those in the crowd who write about SLC seem to always miss it.
|Fig. 2 English SLR|
They do not add it onto their mathematical calculations concerning SLC, whether or not that SLC is in the form of sea level fall (SLF) or sea level rise (SLR).
Today, as I wrote above, I will differentiate between these twins, ghost-water and the other twin, the water everyone can see already (only if they want to).
II. The Visible Twin
The long and short of it is covered by this quote:
|Fig. 3 AI.NE.NE fingerprint|
"In fact, melting ice from Antarctica and Greenland (map) is giving the oceans huge infusions of water, which then gets pulled toward the Equator — counteracting a millennia-old slimming trend around the planet's middle, experts say."(National Geographic, emphasis added). That twin adds to the bulge at the equator, or as we call it, SLC.
That bulge is 42.72 kilometers in magnitude.
The emphasis added to the following quotes alludes to those bulge events which take place at the Earth's mid-section:
"An equatorial bulge is a difference between the equatorial and polar diameters of a planet, due to the centrifugal force of its rotation. A rotating body tends to form an oblate spheroid rather than a sphere. The Earth has an equatorial bulge of 42.77 km (26.58 mi): that is, its diameter measured across the equatorial plane (12,756.27 km (7,926.38 mi)) is 42.77 km more than that measured between the poles (12,713.56 km (7,899.84 mi)). An observer standing at sea level on either pole, therefore, is 21.36 km closer to Earth's centrepoint than if standing at sea level on the equator. The value of Earth's radius may be approximated by the average of these radii." - WikipediaWatching the primaries, we find that some still don't get SLC yet (Selecting A Leader From The Asylum).
"Beginning in the 16th century, humanity’s understanding of our world and the cosmos was revolutionized as we became aware of a simple fact. The Earth moved! Not only did it move about the Sun, but it also rotates. And while it would take several centuries before this became universally accepted (aka. a few people had to endure persecution and house arrest) the fact that the Earth rotates about our Sun and on its axis soon became accepted fact.
In fact, the rotation of our planet on its axis and around the Sun are the cause of just about every stellar phenomenon we humans have come to take for granted." - Universe Today
"The Earth has an equatorial bulge of 42.72 km (26.5 miles) due to its rotation. That is, its diameter measured across the equatorial plane (12756.28 km, 7,927 miles) is 42.72 km more than that measured between the poles (12713.56 km, 7,900 miles)." - Mr. Wizard
They would likely soil themselves if you mention 42.72 km of SLR/bulge caused by the Earth's rotation.
It is somewhat like that with "ghost-water" too.
III. The Heretofore "Invisible Twin" - The Ghost-Water
I have looked at hundreds of scientific papers, articles on SLC, and news releases but have never heard ghost-water mentioned by name or by dynamic reference.
Like "the European problem" of old, they keep seeing more water but they don't see where it is coming from.
The ghost-water is a ghost because they do not see it, not because it is not there.
So, they say "thermal expansion", "land mass rise/fall", etc., is "____ times more than previously thought" ... or something to that general effect.
What they are not seeing is in plain sight has existed longer than they, with their pens, pencils, and keyboards, have:
I want to begin today's post with a quote from the IPCC concerning sea level change (SLC).(The Ghost-Water Constant - 2). Because of influential but erroneous scientific dogma, they see an imaginary "major" contribution to SLC.
The quote in question parrots the all too often spoken and written conventional lack of wisdom concerning an evidently little known reality about SLC.
That quote is: "... thermal expansion ... is one of the major contributors to sea level changes during the 20th and 21st centuries." (IPCC, emphasis added).
But they do not see an actual, real major contributor which I call ghost-water (Questionable Scientific Papers - 4).
The physics of the ghost-water phenomenon is explained in The Gravity of Sea Level Change - 4, so I won't repeat it here.
IV. The Nature of Ghost-Water
Twins have similar genes but nothing indicates they have to be identical in all cases (Scientific American).
It is the same with the twins I am talking about.
The twin that is known by some as: "melting ice from Antarctica and Greenland (map) is giving the oceans huge infusions of water, which then gets pulled toward the Equator" (Section II above) is substantially "genetically" the same as its ghost-water twin.
|Fig. 4 Green & blue end up far away|
But the ghost-water is neither ice, ice-sheet calved ice-bergs, nor melt-water; no, it is seawater that existed there a long time while its twin was still ice (Note: only an amount of ghost-water "equal" to the ice sheet's gravity loss escapes).
Ghost-water is seawater drawn up, like a perpetual high tide, against the coastline of land masses that have ice sheets on them.
It is drawn there and then held there by the gravitational power of the ice sheet's mass (see Mitrovica video below).
As the ice sheet melts, the cumulative power of that ice sheet's gravity decreases, releasing some of the ghost-water twin along with the other twin, the ice sheet's melt-water.
They are both then relocated toward the equatorial bulge, according to the laws of the forces of gravity, as well as those caused by the Earth's rotation.
V. The History of Ghost-Water's Twin
A scientist in 1888 wrote about it:
To our knowledge, Woodward (1888) was the first to demonstrate that the rapid melting of an ice sheet would lead to a geographically variable sea level change. Woodward (1888) assumed a rigid, non-rotating Earth, and therefore self-gravitation of the surface load was the only contributor to the predicted departure from a geographically uniform (i.e. eustatic) sea level rise. This departure was large and counter-intuitive. Specifically, sea level was predicted to fall within ∼2000 km of a melting ice sheet, and to rise with progressively higher amplitude at greater distances. The physics governing this redistribution is straightforward.(On the West Side of Zero, quoting Professor Mitrovica). Like I said, a few do grasp that part of the twin story.
The ghost-twin, however, is not generally acknowledged, as I pointed out above (that twin may have been given up for adoption?).
Land subsidence, thermal expansion, and other phenomena are conflated to account for the "hidden" SLR or SLF source.
In other words, a phenomenon caused by the ghost-water is not attributed to it as it should be.
VI. The Future of Ghost-Water
If SLC and global warming can't be seen by those who refuse to see it, we can expect the same for the ghost-water that adds perhaps ~13.95% to SLC.
I have "fingerprinted" ghost-water, and its twin, in the Dredd Blog way of fingerprinting, which is a hybrid of the traditional method of fingerprinting (see e.g. SLC Fingerprints R Us - 2, Questionable Scientific Papers - 5).
That method is a type of fingerprinting that I think is an improvement over the traditional method.
For example, in Fig. 3, "displacement" is pictured as the twin we all know, but also pictured is the "ghost-water" twin, as well as minor contributors: "thermal-factor."
Let's hope that a real major contributor, ghost-water, gets the recognition it deserves, and can then move away from the "I Don't Get No Respect" realm.
Since tradition tends to evolve into a trance, be careful (Choose Your Trances Carefully).
Those who don't exercise care in trance selection may never get here (You Are Here).
BTW, the PSMSL stations graphed and fingerprinted in zone AI.NE.NE (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3) are Stn. #1109 (WICK), Stn. #361 (ABERDEEN I), Stn. #95 (NORTH SHIELDS), Stn. #1505 (WHITBY), Stn. #286 (IMMINGHAM), Stn. #5 (HOLYHEAD), Stn. #936 (HEYSHAM), Stn. #755 (MILLPORT), Stn. #1112 (ULLAPOOL), and Stn. #314 (STORNOWAY).
The next post in this series is here, the previous post in this series is here.
Dr. Mitrovica: A discussion of, among other things, SLC as impacted by ice sheet mass and gravity: