Wednesday, April 16, 2014

ACLU vs. Clapper, Alexander, Hagel, Holder, and Mueller - 10

Military NSA headquarters
Regular readers know that we have been taking note of various lawsuits against the military NSA secret and untreated habit of spying on all Americans (ACLU vs. Clapper, Alexander, Hagel, Holder, and Mueller).

The ACLU v Clapper case was filed in a federal district court in New York.

As it turns out, that case was eventually dismissed by the federal district court judge in New York, thereafter it was appealed to the Federal Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (ACLU vs. Clapper, Alexander, Hagel, Holder, and Mueller - 8).

Since this series began, the world has pretty much turned against the military NSA, not because of the case, but because of the odious nature of the military NSA (ACLU vs. Clapper, Alexander, Hagel, Holder, and Mueller - 9).

The ACLU has already filed its opening brief in the appellate court (Brief PDF).

Now the military NSA has filed its reply brief (Brief PDF).

Here is a page that has all of the ACLU v Clapper documents in this case.

If we lose in that appellate court, it is likely to be appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court.

If we lose there, we are in very dire straits indeed.

The previous post in this series is here.

Dire Straits




Tuesday, April 15, 2014

On the Origin of the Genes of Viruses - 8

NASA: "Hand of God" supernova
I. Introduction

Current theories of abiotic evolution (a.k.a. "cosmology" or "cosmic evolution") tell us that supernovas, like the one depicted in the photo to the left, take place when large stars explode.

They then eject molecular clouds into space, including carbon that they have produced internally.

Those molecular clouds are then manipulated by gravitational forces that once again conform, collapse, and condense that vast molecular cloud into yet another star with planets that will eventually be in orbits around that star.

Eventually, the third iteration of this abiotic replication phenomenon will bring about the evolution of a different star like the Sun, and will bring about the evolution of planets, some like the Earth.

Our current solar system is one of those third generation abiotic evolutionary results (see On the Origin of the Genes of Viruses - 5, On the Origin of the Genes of Viruses - 6).

II. Abiotic Mutation & Abiotic Selection

One thing that was mentioned in previous posts still remains to be addressed in this series:
Yes, abiotic evolution via abiotic mutation and abiotic-selection (before Darwinian "natural selection" yet existed) is to be explored further in future posts ...
(On the Origin of the Genes of Viruses - 4). To give the general idea of "abiotic selection", I will modify the following natural selection text accordingly:
Natural [Abiotic] selection is the gradual process by which biological [abiological] traits become either more or less common in a population [of cosmic abiotic entities] as a function of the effect of inherited [replicated] traits on the differential reproductive [replicative] success of organisms [abiotic entities] interacting with their environment. It is a key mechanism of evolution. The term "natural selection" was popularized by Charles Darwin who intended it to be compared with artificial selection, now more commonly referred to as selective breeding. [abiotic selection was not considered by Darwin because he was in reference only to the biotic evolution on Earth which followed ~10.21 billion years of abiotic evolution which produced the Sun and other abiotic entities that biotic evolution requires. Abiotic evolution preceded all biotic evolution.]

Variation exists within all populations of organisms. [abiotic entities, whether they are forces, atoms, molecules, stars, planets, etc.] This occurs partly because random mutations occur in the genome of an individual organism, [atoms and molecules,] and these mutations can be passed to offspring. [replicated.] Throughout the individuals’ lives, their genomes [existence of abiotic entities, they] interact with their environments to cause variations in traits. (The environment of a genome includes the molecular biology in the cell, other cells, other individuals, [abiotic] populations, species, [etc.,] as well as the abiotic environment.) Individuals with certain variants of the trait may survive and reproduce more than individuals with other variants. [Cosmic abiotic forces such as gravity act on abiotic entities.] Therefore the [abiotic] population evolves. Factors that affect reproductive success [of replication] are also important, [such as stellar formation,] an issue that Charles Darwin developed in his ideas on sexual selection, for example. Natural [Abiotic] selection acts on the phenotype[type], or the observable characteristics of an organism [abiotic entity such as a star, altering its longevity eventually, through several iterations of formation and restructuring.] but the genetic (heritable) basis of any phenotype that gives a reproductive advantage may become more common in a population (see allele frequency). Over time, this [abiotic evolutionary] process can result in [abiotic] populations that specialize for particular ecological [cosmic] niches and may eventually result in the emergence of new species [of white dwarf stars that are more stable than their predecessors over a longer period of time]. In other words, natural [abiotic] selection is an important process (though not the only process) by which evolution takes place within a population of organisms [abiotic entities, such as forces, quanta, atoms, molecules, molecular clouds, stars, and planets]. Natural [Abiotic] selection can be contrasted with artificial selection, in which [such as Dyson Spheres and Dyson Grids, where] humans intentionally choose specific traits (although they may not always get what they want). In natural [abiotic] selection there is no intentional choice. In other words, artificial selection is teleological and natural [abiotic] selection is not teleological.
(With apologies to Wikipedia, "Natural Selection"). The gist of it is that abiotic evolution through abiotic mutation, and abiotic selection of various sorts, always precedes biotic evolution.

III. The Consequences of Premature Biotic Evolution

Biological evolution may or may not take place prior to the evolution of a fourth generation white dwarf star in a given solar system during abiotic evolution.

A white dwarf is a type of star that offers orders of magnitude more time and abiotic stability for biological evolution to take place on a planet near it, than does the first, second, and third generation stars produced during the abiotic evolution of a solar system.

Our Sun and its planets in our solar system are the products of a third generation in the sequence of abiotic evolution.

Thus, if biological life does evolve prior to the fourth generation, when a stable white dwarf evolves, as it did in our solar system, it is a premature mutation in an important sense (e.g. What Kind of Intelligence Is A Lethal Mutation?).

Further, that premature mutation presents very substantial difficulties for the continued existence of that biological realm which evolved by biotic evolution too early in the stellar sequence (see The Tenets of Ecocosmology).

Thus, all species on the Earth, in order to continue to exist as species, must avoid the solar induced death, which abiotic evolution is slated to bring to the inner planets, when further evolution of the third generation star takes place (ibid, The Tenets of Ecocosmology).

Any continued existence of biotic species produced by such a mutation, as has happened on Earth, involves those biological species becoming space nomads.

It involves traveling to another solar system, or instead it involves risky hiding-out from the Sun in our solar system.

Hiding out on planets and/or moons further out from the Earth (further away from the Sun), in our own solar system (the risk is guessing which planets will be safe from the affects of the Sun during that time frame).

This nomadic existence is non-negotiable when the Sun begins to evolve into a Red Giant, and then destroys the inner planets including the Earth (see On The Origin and Future of Nomads).

Eons later, when the Sun has finally evolved into a White Dwarf, a more stable solar system is thereafter in the offering (see On the Origin of the Genes of Viruses - 5, On the Origin of the Genes of Viruses - 6).

The previous post in this series is here.

This is still National Poetry Month ... so ...
 
Kodachrome
by Simon & Garfunkel

When I think back on all the crap I've learned in high school
It's a wonder I can think at all
Though my lack of education hasn't hurt me much
I can read the writings on the walls

Chorus:
Kodachrome, they give us those nice bright colours
They give us the greens of summers
Makes you think all the world's a sunny day, oh yeah
I got a Nikon camera, I love to take a photograph
So mama don't take my Kodachrome away
...



Monday, April 14, 2014

As The World Turns ... Against The U.S.eh?

The warmongering, hate-filled right-wing, together with the spineless "middle-of-the-roaders", a.k.a. spineless democrats, progressives, and independents who go along with the dark-minded, lost-in-ignorance, right-wing neoCons are in a trance (Stockholm Syndrome on Steroids? - 2).

Incessantly the McMedia induces, through its clueless trance-casters, the perpetuation of a five-decade-old mythology that was never true in the first place.

Polls and other revelations show that currently the U.S. is considered to be the number one threat to peace and stability in the world today:
"The rest of the world, almost unanimously, looks at America as the No. 1 warmonger. That we revert to armed conflict almost at the drop of a hat — and quite often it’s not only desired by the leaders of our country, but it’s also supported by the people of America." - President Carter
...
In 1999, political analyst Samuel P. Huntington warned that for much of the world, the U.S. is "becoming the rogue superpower," seen as "the single greatest external threat to their societies."

A few months into the Bush term, Robert Jervis, president of the American Political Science Association, warned that "In the eyes of much of the world, in fact, the prime rogue state today is the United States." Both Huntington and Jervis warned that such a course is unwise. The consequences for the U.S. could be harmful.

In the latest issue of Foreign Affairs, the leading establishment journal, David
Prey for me
Kaye reviews one aspect of Washington's departure from the world: rejection of multilateral treaties "as if it were sport."
...
Becoming a treaty-worthy nation [at our founding] thus conferred multiple advantages: foreign recognition, and the freedom to act at home without interference. Hegemonic power [to the contrary] offers the opportunity to become a rogue state, freely defying international law and norms, while facing increased resistance abroad and contributing to its own decline through self-inflicted wounds. (A Decline Of The American Republic - 3)
...
He explains that some treaties are rejected outright, as when the U.S. Senate "voted against the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2012 and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1999."

Others are dismissed by inaction, including "such subjects as labor, economic
"We create our own reality"
and cultural rights, endangered species, pollution, armed conflict, peacekeeping, nuclear weapons, the law of the sea, and discrimination against women."

Rejection of international obligations "has grown so entrenched," Kaye writes, "that foreign governments no longer expect Washington's ratification or its full participation in the institutions treaties create. The world is moving on; laws get made elsewhere, with limited (if any) American involvement."

While not new, the practice has indeed become more entrenched in recent years, along with quiet acceptance at home of the doctrine that the U.S. has every right to act as a rogue state. (Why the Rest of the World No Longer Wants to be Like U.S.)
The bully always feels safe inside because the bully's victims are weak in the bully's sight (On The Origin of The Bully Religion), which is why it is bully nations that have suffered and experienced the greatest surprise collapses and catastrophes in history (On The Origin of Catastrophe).

Denial is the oldest and most socially unfit dementia in the history of civilization (Not Da Momma).

It is still National Poetry Month ... so ...

Total Criminalization
- by Frank Zappa, 1979


Eventually it was discovered
That God
Did not want us to be all the same

This was
Bad news
For the government of the world
As it seemed contrary
To the doctrine of
Portion controlled servings.

Mankind must be made more
Uniformly if
The future
Was going to work

Various ways were sought
To bind us altogether
But, alas
Sameness was unenforceable

It was about this time
That someone
Came up with the idea of
TOTAL CRIMINALIZATION.

Based on the principle that
If we are all crooks
We could at least be uniform
To some degrees in the eyes of
The law

Shrewdly our legislators
Calculated
That most people were
Too lazy to perform a
REAL CRIME
So new laws were
Manufactured
Making it possible for
Anyone to violate them
Any time of the day or night,
And
Once we had all broken
Some kind of law
We all in the same
Big happy club
Right up there with the
President,
The most exalted industrialists,
And the clerical big shots
Of all your favorite religions.

Total criminalization
Was the greatest idea of its
Time and was vastly popular
Except with those people
Who didn't want to be crooks
Or outlaws.

So, of course, they had to be
TRICKED INTO IT...
Which is one of the reasons
Why
Music
Was eventually made
ILLEGAL.

(1991 Lost Interview of Frank Zappa)





Friday, April 11, 2014

Scientists Urge Rejection of Keystone XL Pipeline

April 7, 2014

President Barack Obama
The White House
1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20500

Secretary John Kerry
U.S. Department of State
2201 C Street NW
Washington, DC 20520

Dear President Obama and Secretary Kerry,

As scientists and economists, we are concerned about climate change and its impacts. We urge you to reject the Keystone XL tar sands oil pipeline as a project that will contribute to climate change at a time when we should be doing all we can to put clean energy alternatives in place.

As you both have made clear, climate change is a very serious problem. We must address climate change by decarbonizing our energy supply. A critical first step is to stop making climate change worse by tapping into disproportionately carbon-intensive energy sources like tar sands bitumen. The Keystone XL pipeline will drive expansion of the energy-intensive strip-mining and drilling of tar sands from under Canada’s Boreal forest, increasing global carbon emissions. Keystone XL is a step in the wrong direction.

President Obama, you said in your speech in Georgetown last year that “allowing the Keystone pipeline to be built requires a finding that doing so would be in our nation’s interest. And our national interest will be served only if this project does not significantly exacerbate the problem of carbon pollution.”

We agree that climate impact is important and evidence shows that Keystone XL will significantly contribute to climate change. Fuels produced from tar sands result in more greenhouse gas emissions over their lifecycle than fuels produced from conventional oil, including heavy crudes processed in some Gulf Coast refineries. As the main pathway for tar sands to reach overseas markets, the Keystone XL pipeline would cause a sizeable expansion of tar sands production and also an increase in the related greenhouse gas pollution. The State Department review confirmed this analysis under the scenario that best meets the reality of the opposition to alternative pipeline proposals and the higher costs of other ways of transporting diluted bitumen such as rail. The review found:
“The total lifecycle emissions associated with production, refining, and combustion of 830,000 bpd of oil sands crude oil is approximately 147 to 168 MMTCO2e per year. The annual lifecycle GHG emissions from 830,000 bpd of the four reference crudes examined in this section are estimated to be 124 to 159 MMTCO2e. The range of incremental GHG emissions for crude oil that would be transported by the proposed Project is estimated to be 1.3 to 27.4 MMTCO2e annually.”
To put these numbers into perspective, the potential incremental annual emissions of 27.4 MMTCO2e is more than the emissions that seven coal-fired power plants emit in one year. And over the 50-year expected lifespan of the pipeline, the total emissions from Keystone XL could amount to as much as 8.4 billion metric tons CO2e. These are emissions that can and should be avoided with a transition to clean energy.

The contribution of the Keystone XL tar sands pipeline to climate change is real and important, especially given the commitment of the United States and other world leaders to stay within two degrees Celsius of global warming. And yet, the State Department environmental review chose an inconsistent model for its “most likely” scenarios, using business-as-usual energy scenarios that would lead to a catastrophic six degrees Celsius rise in global warming. Rejecting Keystone XL is necessary for the United States to be consistent with its climate commitments. Six degrees Celsius of global warming has no place in a sound climate plan.

Secretary Kerry, in your speech in Jakarta, you said, “The science of climate change is leaping out at us like a scene from a 3D movie – warning us – compelling us to act.” Rejecting the Keystone XL tar sands pipeline would be a decision based on sound science.

The world is looking to the United States to lead through strong climate action at home. This includes rejecting projects that will make climate change worse such as the Keystone XL tar sands pipeline.

Sincerely,

John Abraham, Ph.D.
Professor
University of St. Thomas

Philip W. Anderson, Ph.D.
Nobel Prize (Physics 1977)
Emeritus Professor
Princeton University

Tim Arnold, Ph.D.
Assistant Project Scientist Scripps Institution of Oceanography
University of California, San Diego

Kenneth J. Arrow, Ph.D.
Nobel Prize (Economics 1972) Professor emeritus of Economics and of
Management Science and Engineering
Stanford University

Roger Bales, Ph.D.
Professor of Engineering
University of California, Merced

Paul H. Beckwith, M.S.
Part-time professor: climatology/meteorology
Department of Geography
University of Ottawa

Anthony Bernhardt, Ph.D.
Physicist and Program Leader (retired)
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Damien C. Brady, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marine Science Darling Marine Center
University of Maine

Julie A. Brill, Ph.D.
Director, Collaborative Program in Developmental Biology, and Professor, Department of Molecular Genetics
University of Toronto
Senior Scientist, Cell Biology Program
The Hospital for Sick Children

Gary Brouhard, Ph.D.
Department of Biology
McGill University

Ken Caldeira, Ph.D.
Senior Scientist
Carnegie Institution for Science

Grant Cameron, Ph.D.
Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) Scripps Institution of Oceanography
University of California, San Diego

Shelagh D. Campbell, Ph.D.
Professor, Biological Sciences
University of Alberta

Kai M. A. Chan, Ph.D.
Associate Professor & Tier 2 Canada Research Chair (Biodiversity & Ecosystem Services)
Graduate Advisor, RMES Institute for Resources, Environment & Sustainability
University of British Columbia

Eugene Cordero, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Meteorology and Climate Science
San Jose State University

Rosemary Cornell, Ph.D.
Professor, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
Simon Fraser University

Gretchen C. Daily, Ph.D.
Bing Professor of Environmental Science
Stanford University

Timothy Daniel, Ph.D.
Economist
U.S. Federal Trade Commission

Miriam Diamond, Ph.D.
Professor
Department of Earth Sciences
Cross-appointed to:
Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Sciences
Dalla Lana School of Public Health
School of the Environment
Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences
University of Toronto

Lawrence M. Dill, Ph.D., FRSC
Professor Emeritus
Simon Fraser University

Simon Donner, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Geography
University of British Columbia

Roland Droitsch, Ph.D.
President
KM21 Associates

Nicholas Dulvy, Ph.D.
Professor, Canada Research Chair in Marine Biodiversity
and Conservation Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University

Steve Easterbrook, Ph.D.
Professor of Computer Science
University of Toronto

Anne Ehrlich, Ph.D.
Biology Department
Stanford University

Paul R. Ehrlich, Ph.D.
Bing Professor of Population Studies and President, Center for Conservation Biology
Stanford University

Henry Erlich, Ph.D.
Scientist
Center for Genetics
Children’s Hospital Research Institute

Alejandro Frid, Ph.D.
Science Coordinator
Central Coast Indigenous Resource Alliance

Konrad Gajewski, Ph.D.
Laboratory for Paleoclimatology and Climatology
Department of Geography
University of Ottawa

Eric Galbraith, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Department of Earth and Planetary Science
McGill University

Geoffrey Gearheart, Ph.D.
Scientist, Center for Marine Biodiversity and Biomedicine Scripps Institution of Oceanography
University of California, San Diego

Alexander J. Glass, Ph.D.
Emeritus Associate Director
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

John R. Glover, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Biochemistry
University of Toronto

Ursula Goodenough, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Biology
Washington University in St. Louis

Stephanie Green, Ph.D.
David H. Smith Conservation Research Fellow
Oregon State University

Steven Hackett, Ph.D.
Professor of Economics Associated Faculty, Energy Technology & Policy
Humboldt State University

Joshua B. Halpern, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Chemistry
Howard University

Alexandra Hangsterfer, M.S.
Geological Collections Manager Scripps Institution of Oceanography
University of California, San Diego

James Hansen, Ph.D.
Adjunct Professor
Climate Science, Awareness and Solutions
Columbia University Earth Institute

John Harte, Ph.D.
Professor of Ecosystem Sciences
Energy and Resources Group
University of California, Berkeley

H. Criss Hartzell, Ph.D.
Professor
Emory University School of Medicine

Danny Harvey, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Geography
University of Toronto

Rodrick A. Hay, Ph.D.
Dean and Professor of Geography College of Natural and Behavioral Sciences
California State University Dominguez Hills

Karen Holl, Ph.D.
Professor of Environmental Studies
University of California, Santa Cruz

Robert Howarth, Ph.D.
The David R. Atkinson Professor of
Ecology & Environmental Biology
Cornell University

Jonathan Isham, Jr., Ph.D.
Professor of Economics
Middlebury College

Andrew Iwaniuk, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
University of Lethbridge

Mark Jaccard, Ph.D., FRSC
Professor
School of Resource and Environmental Management
Simon Fraser University

Louise E. Jackson, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources
University of California Davis

Pete Jumars, Ph.D.
Professor of Marine Sciences
Darling Marine Center
University of Maine

David Keith, Ph.D.
Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Physics
School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS); and,
Professor of Public Policy, Kennedy School of Government
Harvard University

Jeremy T. Kerr, Ph.D.
University Research Chair in
Macroecology and Conservation Professor of Biology
University of Ottawa

Bryan Killett, Ph.D.
Jet Propulsion Lab

Keith W. Kisselle, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Biology & Environmental Science Academic Chair of Center for Environmental Studies
Austin College

Janet E. Kübler, Ph.D.
Senior Research Scientist
California State University at Northridge

Sherman Lewis, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus of Political Science
California State University Hayward

Michael E. Loik, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Environmental Studies
University of California, Santa Cruz

Michael C. MacCracken, Ph.D.
Chief Scientist for Climate Change Programs
Climate Institute

Scott A. Mandia, M.S.
Professor/Asst. Chair, Department of Physical Sciences
Suffolk County Community College

Michael Mann, Ph.D.
Distinguished Professor and Director of Earth System Science Center
Penn State University

Adam Martiny, Ph.D.
Associate Professor in Marine Science Department of Earth System Science
University of California, Irvine

Damon Matthews, Ph.D.
Associate Professor and
Concordia University Research Chair
Geography, Planning and Environment
Concordia University

James J. McCarthy, Ph.D.
Alexander Agassiz Professor of Biological Oceanography
Harvard University

Susan K. McConnell, Ph.D.
Susan B. Ford Professor Dunlevie Family University Fellow Department of Biology
Stanford University

Dominick Mendola, Ph.D.
Senior Development Engineer Scripps Institution of Oceanography
University of California, San Diego

Faisal Moola, Ph.D.
Adjunct Professor, Faculty of Forestry
University of Toronto; and,
Adjunct Professor, Faculty of Environmental Studies
York University

William Moomaw, Ph.D.
Professor, The Fletcher School
Tufts University

Jens Mühle, Dr. rer. nat.
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
University of California, San Diego

Richard B. Norgaard, Ph.D.
Professor Emeritus of Energy and Resources
University of California, Berkeley

Gretchen North, Ph.D.
Professor of Biology
Occidental College

Dana Nuccitelli, M.S.
Environmental Scientist
Tetra Tech, Inc.

Michael Oppenheimer, Ph.D.
Professor of Geosciences and International Affairs
Princeton University

Wendy J. Palen, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Earth to Ocean Research Group
Simon Fraser University

Edward A. Parson, Ph.D.
Dan and Rae Emmett Professor of Environmental Law
Faculty Co-Director
Emmett Center on Climate Change and the Environment
UCLA School of Law

Raymond T. Pierrehumbert, Ph.D.
Louis Block Professor in the Geophysical Sciences
The University of Chicago

Richard Plevin, Ph.D.
Research Scientist NextSTEPS (Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways) Institute of Transportation Studies
University of California, Davis

John Pollack, M.S.
Meteorologist; and,
National Weather Service forecaster (retired)

Jessica Dawn Pratt, Ph.D.
Education & Outreach Coordinator Center for Environmental Biology
University of California, Irvine

Lynne M. Quarmby, Ph.D.
Professor & Chair
Molecular Biology & Biochemistry
Simon Fraser University

Rebecca Rolph, M.S.
Max Planck Institute for Meteorology
Hamburg, Germany; and,
Klimacampus, University of Hamburg

Thomas Roush, MD
Columbia University School of Public Health (retired)

Maureen Ryan, Ph.D.
Research Associate, Simon Fraser University; and,
Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Washington

Anne K. Salomon, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
School of Resource and Environmental Management
Simon Fraser University

Casey Schmidt, Ph.D.
Assistant Research Professor Desert Research Institute
Division of Hydrologic Sciences

Peter C. Schulze, Ph.D.
Professor of Biology & Environmental Science Director, Center for Environmental Studies
Austin College

Jason Scorse, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Monterrey Institute of International Studies
Middlebury College

Jamie Scott, MD, Ph.D.
Professor and Canada Research Chair
Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry
Faculty of Science and Faculty of Health Sciences
Simon Fraser University

Michael A. Silverman, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University

Leonard S. Sklar, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Earth & Climate Sciences Department
San Francisco State University

Jerome A. Smith, Ph.D.
Research Oceanographer Scripps Institution of Oceanography
University of California, San Diego

Richard C. J. Somerville, Ph.D.
Distinguished Professor Emeritus and Research Professor Scripps Institution of Oceanography
University of California, San Diego

Brandon M. Stephens, M.S.
Graduate Student Researcher Scripps Institution of Oceanography
University of California, San Diego

John M. R. Stone, Ph.D.
Adjunct Professor
Carleton University

David Suzuki, Ph.D.
Emeritus Professor
Sustainable Development Research Institute
University of British Columbia

Jennifer Taylor, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
University of California, San Diego

Michael S. Tift, M.S.
Doctoral Student Scripps Institution of Oceanography
University of California, San Diego

Cali Turner Tomaszewicz, M.S.
Doctoral Student, Biological Sciences
Department of Ecology, Behavior & Evolution
University of California, San Diego

Till Wagner, Ph.D.
Scientist, Scripps Institution of Oceanography
University of California, San Diego

Barrie Webster, Ph.D.
Professor (retired)
University of Manitoba

Richard Weinstein, Ph.D.
Lecturer
University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Anthony LeRoy Westerling, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of
Environmental Engineering and Geography
University of California, Merced

Mark L. Winston, Ph.D., FRSC
Academic Director and Fellow, Center for Dialogue
Simon Fraser University

George M. Woodwell, Ph.D.
Member, National Academy of Sciences, and
Founder and Director Emeritus
The Woods Hole Research Center

Kirsten Zickfeld, Ph.D.
Professor of Climatology
Simon Fraser University